Advertisement

Particle Size Analysis of Micro and Nanoparticles

  • Elisabeth Kastner
  • Yvonne PerrieEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Delivery Science and Technology book series (ADST)

Abstract

Micro-and nanosized particles are extensively used in drug formulation, delivery and targeting with the size of these particles fundamentally influencing their properties. There are a range of methods for measuring the size of these system. Here, we evaluate and compare the main particle measurement techniques for micro- and nanosized particles, elucidating on the respective measurement principles. Light scattering based particle sizing techniques are described, including the background to dynamic light scattering, laser diffraction and nanoparticle tracking analysis. Pulse sensing particle sizing methods including Coulter Counter and tunable resistive pulse sensing are described. Two case studies provide practical examples of how to interpret particle size analysis data and how to compare between different measurement techniques.

Keywords

Dynamic light scattering Laser diffraction Particle sizing Pulse sensing 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge Sameer Joshi who generated the plots presented in Fig. 21.5 and Robert Vogel (Izon Science) for reviewing the manuscript. This work was part funded by the EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Emergent Macromolecular Therapies and Aston University.

References

  1. Allen T (1997) Particle size measurement, vol 2, Surface area and pore size determination. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson W et al (2013) A comparative study of submicron particle sizing platforms: accuracy, precision and resolution analysis of polydisperse particle size distributions. J Colloid Interface Sci 405:322–330CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bell NC et al (2012) Emerging techniques for submicrometer particle sizing applied to stober silica. Langmuir 28(29):10860–10872CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bleeker EA et al (2013) Considerations on the EU definition of a nanomaterial: science to support policy making. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 65(1):119–125CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Braeckmans K et al (2010) Sizing nanomatter in biological fluids by fluorescence single particle tracking. Nano Lett 10(11):4435–4442CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Carr B, Wright M (2008) Nanoparticle tracking analysis. Innovations Pharm Technol 26:38–40Google Scholar
  7. Carr B et al (2009) Applications of nanoparticle tracking analysis in nanoparticle research--A mini-review. Eur J Parenter Pharm Sci 14(2):45Google Scholar
  8. Christensen D et al (2007) Cationic liposomes as vaccine adjuvants. Expert Rev Vaccines 6:785–796CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Chu B, Liu T (2000) Characterization of nanoparticles by scattering techniques. J Nanopart Res 2(1):29–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Coulter WB (1953), Itteajls fofe counting mrtictes, Google Patents.Google Scholar
  11. DeBlois R, Bean C (1970) Counting and sizing of submicron particles by the resistive pulse technique. Rev Sci Instrum 41(7):909–916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fu Q, Sun W (2001) Mie theory for light scattering by a spherical particle in an absorbing medium. Appl Opt 40(9):1354–1361CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Gardiner C, Dragovic R (2014) Nanoparticle tracking analysis. Extracellular vesicles in health and disease, p 261Google Scholar
  14. Hurley J (1970) Sizing particles with a Coulter counter. Biophys J 10(1):74–79CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Ito T et al (2004) Comparison of nanoparticle size and electrophoretic mobility measurements using a carbon-nanotube-based coulter counter, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and phase analysis light scattering. Langmuir 20(16):6940–6945CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Kozak D et al (2011) Advances in resistive pulse sensors: devices bridging the void between molecular and microscopic detection. Nano Today 6(5):531–545CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Kozak D et al (2012) Simultaneous size and ζ-potential measurements of individual nanoparticles in dispersion using size-tunable pore sensors. ACS Nano 6(8):6990–6997CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. McFadyen P, Fairhurst D (1993) High-resolution particle size analysis from nanometres to microns. Clay Miner 28(4):531–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Merkus, H.G., Particle size measurements: fundamentals. Practice, Quality, 2009: p. 1-7.Google Scholar
  20. Oppenheimer LE (1983) Interpretation of disk centrifuge data. J Colloid Interface Sci 92(2):350–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Pecora R (2000) Dynamic light scattering measurement of nanometer particles in liquids. J Nanopart Res 2(2):123–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Roberts GS et al (2010) Tunable nano/micropores for particle detection and discrimination: scanning ion occlusion spectroscopy. Small 6(23):2653–2658CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Roberts GS et al (2012) Tunable pores for measuring concentrations of synthetic and biological nanoparticle dispersions. Biosens Bioelectron 31(1):17–25CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Shibata K (1971) Measurement of size distribution with the Coulter counter. Methods Enzymol 24:171–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sowerby SJ, Broom MF, Petersen GB (2007) Dynamically resizable nanometre-scale apertures for molecular sensing. Sens Actuators, B 123(1):325–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Stanley-Wood N, Lines RW (1992) Particle size analysis, vol 102. Royal Society of Chemistry, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Willmott G et al (2010) Use of tunable nanopore blockade rates to investigate colloidal dispersions. J Phys: Condens Matter 22(45):454116Google Scholar
  28. Willmott GR, Platt M, Lee GU (2012) Resistive pulse sensing of magnetic beads and supraparticle structures using tunable pores. Biomicrofluidics 6(1):014103CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Controlled Release Society 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical SciencesUniversity of StrathclydeGlasgowScotland

Personalised recommendations