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Magnetic Reconnection and Associated Transient Phenomena Within the Magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn

  • Philippe LouarnEmail author
  • Nicolas Andre
  • Caitriona M. Jackman
  • Satoshi Kasahara
  • Elena A. Kronberg
  • Marissa F. Vogt
Chapter
  • 414 Downloads
Part of the Space Sciences Series of ISSI book series (SSSI, volume 50)

Abstract

We review in situ observations made in Jupiter and Saturn’s magnetosphere that illustrate the possible roles of magnetic reconnection in rapidly-rotating magnetospheres. In the Earth’s solar wind-driven magnetosphere, the magnetospheric convection is classically described as a cycle of dayside opening and tail closing reconnection (the Dungey cycle). For the rapidly-rotating Jovian and Kronian magnetospheres, heavily populated by internal plasma sources, the classical concept (the Vasyliunas cycle) is that the magnetic reconnection plays a key role in the final stage of the radial plasma transport across the disk. By cutting and closing flux tubes that have been elongated by the rotational stress, the reconnection process would lead to the formation of plasmoids that propagate down the tail, contributing to the final evacuation of the internally produced plasma and allowing the return of the magnetic flux toward the planet. This process has been studied by inspecting possible ‘local’ signatures of the reconnection, as magnetic field reversals, plasma flow anisotropies, energetic particle bursts, and more global consequences on the magnetospheric activity.

The investigations made at Jupiter support the concept of an ‘average’ X-line, extended in the dawn/dusk direction and located at 90–120 Jovian radius (\(\mathrm{R}_{\mathrm{J}}\)) on the night side. The existence of a similar average X-line has not yet been established at Saturn, perhaps by lack of statistics. Both at Jupiter and Saturn, the reconfiguration signatures are consistent with magnetospheric dipolarizations and formation of plasmoids and flux ropes. In several cases, the reconfigurations also appear to be closely associated with large scale activations of the magnetosphere, seen from the radio and auroral emissions. Nevertheless, the statistical study also suggests that the reconnection events and the associated plasmoids are not frequent enough to explain a plasma evacuation that matches the mass input rate from the satellites and the rings. Different forms of transport should thus act together to evacuate the plasma, which still needs to be established. Investigations of reconnection signatures at the magnetopause and other processes as the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability are also reviewed. A provisional conclusion would be that the dayside reconnection is unlikely a crucial process in the overall dynamics. On the small scales, the detailed analysis of one reconnection event at Jupiter shows that the local plasma signatures (field-aligned flows, energetic particle bursts…) are very similar to those observed at Earth, with likely a similar scaling with respect to characteristic kinetic lengths (Larmor radius and inertial scales).

Keywords

Magnetosphere Giant planet 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philippe Louarn
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nicolas Andre
    • 1
  • Caitriona M. Jackman
    • 2
  • Satoshi Kasahara
    • 3
  • Elena A. Kronberg
    • 4
  • Marissa F. Vogt
    • 5
  1. 1.Institut d’Astrophysique et de Planétologie (IRAP)CNRS/UPSToulouseFrance
  2. 2.University of SouthamptonSouthamptonUK
  3. 3.Institute of Space and Astronautical Science JAXASagamiharaJapan
  4. 4.Max Planck Institute for Solar System ResearchGöttingenGermany
  5. 5.University of LeicesterLeicesterUK

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