Advertisement

The Pathway for Oxygen: Tutorial Modelling on Oxygen Transport from Air to Mitochondrion

The Pathway for Oxygen
  • James B. BassingthwaighteEmail author
  • Gary M. Raymond
  • Ranjan K. Dash
  • Daniel A. Beard
  • Margaret Nolan
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 876)

Abstract

The ‘Pathway for Oxygen’ is captured in a set of models describing quantitative relationships between fluxes and driving forces for the flux of oxygen from the external air source to the mitochondrial sink at cytochrome oxidase. The intervening processes involve convection, membrane permeation, diffusion of free and heme-bound O2 and enzymatic reactions. While this system’s basic elements are simple: ventilation, alveolar gas exchange with blood, circulation of the blood, perfusion of an organ, uptake by tissue, and consumption by chemical reaction, integration of these pieces quickly becomes complex. This complexity led us to construct a tutorial on the ideas and principles; these first PathwayO2 models are simple but quantitative and cover: (1) a ‘one-alveolus lung’ with airway resistance, lung volume compliance, (2) bidirectional transport of solute gasses like O2 and CO2, (3) gas exchange between alveolar air and lung capillary blood, (4) gas solubility in blood, and circulation of blood through the capillary syncytium and back to the lung, and (5) blood-tissue gas exchange in capillaries. These open-source models are at Physiome.org and provide background for the many respiratory models there.

Keywords

Mechanics of ventilation Oxygen transport in blood Blood-tissue oxygen exchange Oxidative phosphorylation 

Notes

Acknowledgment

This research has been supported by NIH/BE-01973 and BE-8407, an HL 073598, NSF 0506477, and the VPR project GM094503. B. Jardine installed JSim and the models, which can be downloaded from www.physiome.org. The inspiration for the title comes from the pioneering works of Professor Ewald Weibel, University of Bern [18].

References

  1. 1.
    Carlson BE, Anderson JC, Raymond GR, Dash RK, Bassingthwaighte JB (2008) Modeling oxygen and carbon dioxide transport and exchange using a closed loop circulatory system. In: Kang KA, Harrison DK, Bruley DF (eds) Oxygen transport to tissue XXIX. Springer, New York, pp 353–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Goresky CA (1963) A linear method for determining liver sinusoidal and extravascular volumes. Am J Physiol 204(4):626–640PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dash RK, Li Z, Bassingthwaighte JB (2006) Simultaneous blood-tissue exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, and hydrogen ion. Ann Biomed Eng 34:1129–1148CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dash RK, Bassingthwaighte JB (2010) Erratum to: blood HbO2 and HbCO2 dissociation curves at varied O2, CO2, pH, 2,3-DPG and temperature levels. Ann Biomed Eng 38:1683–1701CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bassingthwaighte JB, Chan JIS, Wang CY (1992) Computationally efficient algorithms for convection-permeation-diffusion models for blood-tissue exchange. Ann Biomed Eng 20(6):687–725CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Butterworth E, Raymond GM, Jardine B, Neal ML, Bassingthwaighte JB (2013) JSim, an open-source modeling system for data analysis. F1000Res 2:288, 19ppPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Deussen A, Bassingthwaighte JB (1996) Modeling 15O-oxygen tracer data for estimating oxygen consumption. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 270:H1115–H1130Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Li Z, Yipintsoi T, Bassingthwaighte JB (1997) Nonlinear model for capillary-tissue oxygen transport and metabolism. Ann Biomed Eng 25:604–619CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Beyer RP, Bassingthwaighte JB, Deussen AJ (2002) A computational model of oxygen transport from red blood cells to mitochondria. Comput Methods Programs Biomed 67:39–54CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bassingthwaighte JB, Li Z (1999) Heterogeneities in myocardial flow and metabolism: exacerbation with abnormal excitation. Am J Cardiol 83:7H–12HCrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Beard DA (2005) A biophysical model of the mitochondrial respiratory system and oxidative phosphorylation. PLoS Comput Biol 1:252–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Neal ML, Bassingthwaighte JB (2007) Subject-specific model estimation of cardiac output and blood volume during hemorrhage. Cardiovasc Eng 7:97–120CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kuikka J, Levin M, Bassingthwaighte JB (1986) Multiple tracer dilution estimates of D- and 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake by the heart. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 250:H29–H42Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Caldwell JH, Martin GV, Raymond GM, Bassingthwaighte JB (1994) Regional myocardial flow and capillary permeability-surface area products are nearly proportional. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 267:H654–H666Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kerckhoffs RCP, Neal ML, Gu Q, Bassingthwaighte JB, Omens JH, McCulloch AD (2007) Coupling of a 3D finite element model of cardiac ventricular mechanics to lumped systems models of the systemic and pulmonary circulation. Ann Biomed Eng 35:1–18CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Reneau DD, Bruley DF, Knisely MH (1967) A mathematical simulation of oxygen release, diffusion, and consumption in the capillaries and tissue of the human brain. In: Chemical engineering in medicine and biology. Plenum Press, New York, pp 135–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bassingthwaighte JB (1966) Plasma indicator dispersion in arteries of the human leg. Circ Res 19:332–346CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Weibel ER (1984) The pathway for oxygen. Structure and function in the mammalian respiratory system. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • James B. Bassingthwaighte
    • 1
    Email author
  • Gary M. Raymond
    • 1
  • Ranjan K. Dash
    • 2
  • Daniel A. Beard
    • 3
  • Margaret Nolan
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of BioengineeringUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Department of PhysiologyMedical College of WisconsinMilwaukeeUSA
  3. 3.Department of Molecular and Integrative PhysiologyUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  4. 4.Department of BioengineeringUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations