Constrained Quadratic Ordination

  • Thomas W. Yee
Part of the Springer Series in Statistics book series (SSS)


This chapter describes an extension of the RR-VGLM class, called quadratic reduced-rank vector generalized linear models (QRR-VGLMs), which allow for constrained quadratic ordination (CQO). QRR-VGLMs have a lot of potential applications in ecology where species–site data are collected. Topics include the basic ideas of ordination, the species packing model, latent variables as gradients, CQO estimation and interpretation, biplots, and calibration. Unconstrained QO (indirect gradient analysis) is also described. Some real-data examples are given.


Environmental Variable Brown Trout Ordination Axis Niche Width Reference Species 
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Copyright information

© Thomas Yee 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas W. Yee
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of StatisticsUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand

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