What Is Fluency?

  • Gina BiancarosaEmail author
  • Lina Shanley


Fluency is a ubiquitous, but a complicated term. This chapter provides an overview of various conceptions of fluency across a range of disciplines and research contexts as well as discusses implications for research, assessment, and instruction. We include an overview of definitions and exemplars of fluency in language use, reading, and mathematics followed by an exploration of fluency concepts (e.g., automaticity, efficiency, and procedural skill) and considerations for research. The chapter concludes with recommendations for investigations of fluency including attending to measurement issues, explicitly defining and analyzing discrete components of fluency, and leveraging these precise definitions to evaluate the interactions between task and proficiency inherent to fluency exercises.


Fluency Automaticity Language proficiency Educational assessment Mathematics 


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center on Teaching and LearningUniversity of OregonEugeneUSA

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