New Preoperative Images, Surgical Planning, and Navigation
Surgical planning and navigation systems now play a significant role in the way treatment decisions are made in many surgical disciplines, including neurosurgery and orthopedic surgery. Advanced visualization techniques such as volume and surface rendering enable three-dimensional (3D) visualization and volumetric analysis of traditional two-dimensional (2D) diagnostic images (e.g., CT, MRI, PET), allowing the surgeon to plan their procedure with greater confidence and based on more detailed (and often, more quantitative) information. Currently available navigation systems augment surgical procedures by allowing surgeons to track their instruments in real-time relative to these preoperative images and patient-specific surgical plans. Real-time instrument tracking enables surgeons to quickly localize areas of interest such as cancerous tumors or major vascular structures. Additionally, there are many approaches to mapping multiple imaging modalities to the surgical field, which can greatly enhance the amount of information available to the operating surgeon. Future efforts in this field will be focused on increasing the accuracy and automation of image processing and intraoperative registration methods and more streamlined integration with surgical therapeutic instruments (e.g., resection and ablation devices), intraoperative imaging, robotics, and augmented reality.
KeywordsSurgical navigation Computer-assisted surgery Image-guided surgery Image-guided liver surgery Soft-tissue navigation Image-guided ablation Image fusion Surgical planning Volumetric analysis
The authors would like to thank representatives from Vital Images, Inc. and CAScination AG for assistance in preparing some of the figures in this chapter.
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