Clinical Milestones for Optical Imaging

  • Jonathan Sorger


My wife is a history teacher. George Santayana’s observation that “those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it,” rings true in the field of optical imaging in the operating room. Much can be learned from historic difficulties in bringing optical imaging modalities successfully into the clinical workflow of the surgical suite. Few of the critical milestones in this field will be realized unless creativity is used to demonstrate that the failure to successfully translate optical and other imaging modalities can be avoided in this nascent area.


Optical imaging Investigational new drug (IND) Ultrasound, photo acoustic imaging Magnetic resonance X-ray Imaging agents PET MRI A folic acid fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) EC17 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Intuitive Surgical IncorporatedSunnyvaleUSA

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