Advertisement

Sleep Medicine pp 205-221 | Cite as

Narcolepsy–Cataplexy Syndrome and Symptomatic Hypersomnia

  • Seiji NishinoEmail author
  • Masatoshi Sato
  • Mari Matsumura
  • Takashi Kanbayashi
Chapter

Abstract

Narcolepsy–cataplexy, narcolepsy without cataplexy, and idiopathic hypersomnia are three major primary hypersomnias, and these hypersomnias are currently diagnosed mostly by sleep phenotypes. Since a substantial clinical overlap among these hypersomnias has been noted, biology- and pathophysiology-based diagnostic tests are urgently needed in order to understand the mechanisms of disease and to provide better treatments.

Recent progress for understanding the pathophysiology of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) owes particularly to the discovery of narcolepsy genes (i.e., hypocretin receptor and peptide genes) in animals in 1999 and the subsequent discovery of hypocretin ligand deficiency in idiopathic cases of human narcolepsy–cataplexy. Hypocretin deficiency is also involved in many cases of symptomatic narcolepsy and EDS cases. Changes in other neurotransmitter systems, such as monoamines and acetylcholine, previously reported in these conditions, are likely to be secondary to the impaired hypocretin neurotransmission, but these may also mediate the sleep abnormalities seen in hypocretin-deficient narcolepsy and in other less-defined hypersomnias.

The pathophysiology of hypocretin nondeficient narcolepsy is debated. Similarly, the pathophysiology of idiopathic hypersomnia is largely unknown, but hypocretin deficiency is not likely be involved in this condition.

The clinical and pathophysiological aspects of EDS with various etiology are discussed.

Keywords

Narcolepsy Neurochemistry Biomarkers Hypocretin Orexin EDS Idiopathic hypersomnia Symptomatic narcolepsy Symptomatic EDS Histamine CSF 

References

  1. 1.
    ICSD-3-International classification of sleep disorders: diagnostic and coding manual. 3rd ed. Darien, IL: American Academy of Sleep Medicine; 2014.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Verma A, Anand V, Verma NP. Sleep disorders in chronic traumatic brain injury. J Clin Sleep Med. 2007;3(4):357–62.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nishino S, Kanbayashi T. Symptomatic narcolepsy, cataplexy and hypersomnia, and their implications in the hypothalamic hypocretin/orexin system. Sleep Med Rev. 2005;9(4):269–310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Marcus JN, Aschkenasi CJ, Lee CE, Chemelli RM, Saper CB, Yanagisawa M, et al. Differential expression of orexin receptors 1 and 2 in the rat brain. J Comp Neurol. 2001;435(1):6–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hirai N, Nishino S. Recent advances in the treatment of narcolepsy. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2011;13(5):437–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nishino S, Mignot E. Narcolepsy and cataplexy. Handb Clin Neurol. 2011;99:783–814.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nishino S, Kotorii N. Overview of management of narcolepsy. In: Goswami M, Pandi-Perumal SR, Thorpy MJ, editors. Narcolepsy. Totowa: Humana; 2009. pp. 251–65.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nishino S. Modes of action of drugs related to narcolepsy: pharmacology of wake-promoting compounds and anticataplectics. In: Goswami M, Pandi-Perumal SR, Thorpy MJ, editors. Narcolepsy. Totowa: Humana; 2009. pp. 267–86.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Guilleminault C. Narcolepsy and its differential diagnosis. In: Guilleminault C, editor. Sleep and it disorders in children. New York: Raven Press; 1987. pp. 181–94.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Broughton R, Ghanem Q. The impact of compound narcolepsy on the life of the patient. In: Guilleminault C, Dement WC, Passouant P, editors. Narcolepsy. New York: Spectrum; 1976. pp. 201–20.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dement WC. Daytime sleepiness and sleep †attacks”. In: Guilleminault C, Dement WC, Passouant P, editors. Narcolepsy. New York: Spectrum; 1976. pp. 17–42.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cohen FL, Smith KM. Learning and memory in narcoleptic patients and controls. Sleep Res. 1989;18:117.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rogers AE, Rosenberg RS. Test of memory in narcoleptics. Sleep. 1990;13:42–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Billiard M, Besset A, Cadilhac J. The clinical and polygraphic development of narcolepsy. In: Guilleminault C, Lugaresi E, editors. Sleep/wake disorders: natural history, epidemiology and longterm evolution. New York: Raven; 1983. pp. 171–85.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Honda Y. Clinical features of narcolepsy. In: Honda Y, Juji T, editors. HLA in narcolepsy. Berlin: Springer; 1988. pp. 24–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Parkes JD, Baraitser M, Marsden CD, Asselman P. Natural history, symptoms and treatment of the narcoleptic syndrome. Acta Neurol Scand. 1975;52:337–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Roth B. Narcolepsy and hypersomnia. In: Roth B, Broughton W, editors. Basel: Karger; 1980.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yoss RE, Daly DD. Criteria for the diagnosis of the narcoleptic syndrome. Proc Staff Meet Mayo. 1957;32:320–8.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kales A, Soldatos CR, Bixler EO. Narcolepsy–cataplexy II Psychosocial consequences and associated psychopathology. Arch Neurol. 1982;39:169–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Guilleminault C, Wilson RA, Dement WC. A study on cataplexy. Arch Neurol. 1974;31:255–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Henneberg R. Uber genuine Narkolepsie. Neurol Zbl. 1916;30:282–90.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Löwenfeld L. Uber Narkolepsie. Munch Med Wochenschr. 1902;49:1041–5.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Daniels LE. Narcolepsy. Medicine. 1934;13(1):1–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wilson SAK. The narcolepsies. Annu Congress Assoc Phys. 1927;June 3:63–109.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gelb M, Guilleminault C, Kraemer H, Lin S, Moon S, Dement WC, et al. Stability of cataplexy over several months-information for the design of therapeutic trials. Sleep. 1994;17:265–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Passouant P, Baldy-Moulinier M, Aussilloux C. Etat de mal cataplectique au cours d’ume maladie de Gelineau, influence de la clomipramine. Rev Neurol. 1970;123:56–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hishikawa Y, Shimizu T. Physiology of REM sleep, cataplexy, and sleep paralysis. In: Fahn S, Hallet M, Lüders HO, Marsden CDü, editors. Negative motor phenomena. Philadelphia: Lippincot-Raven; 1995. pp. 245–71.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rosenthal L, Merlotti L, Young D, Zorick F, Wittig R, Roehrs T, et al. Subjective and polysomnographic characteristics of patients diagnosed with narcolepsy. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 1990;12:191–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hishikawa Y. Sleep paralysis. In Guilleminault C, Dement W.C., Passouant P, editors. Narcolepsy. New York: Spectrum; 1976. pp. 97–124.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Parkes JD, Fenton G, Struthers G, Curzon G, Kantamaneni BD, Buxton BH, et al. Narcolepsy and cataplexy. Clinical features, treatment and cerebrospinal fluid findings. Q J Med. 1974;172:525–36.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yoss RE, Daly DD. Narcolepsy. Med Clin North Am. 1960;44(4):953–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rosenthal C. Uber das aufreten von halluzinatorisch-kataplektischem Angstsyndrom, wachanfallen und ahnlichen storungen bei Schizophrenen. Mschr Psychiatry. 1939;102:11.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dahlitz M, Parkes JD. Sleep paralysis. Lancet. 1993;341:406–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Fukuda K, Miyasita A, Inugami M, Ishihara K. High prevalence of isolated sleep paralysis: Kanashibari phenomenon in Japan. Sleep. 1987;10(3):279–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Goode B. Sleep paralysis. Arch Neurol. 1962;6(3):228–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ribstein M. Hypnagogic hallucinations. In Guilleminault C, Dement WC, Passouant P, editors. Narcolepsy. New York: Spectrum; 1976. pp. 145–60.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chetrit M, Besset A, Damci D, Lelarge C, Billiard M. Hypnogogic hallucinations associated with sleep onset REM period in narcolepsy–cataplexy. J Sleep Res. 1994;3(Suppl 1):43.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hishikawa Y, Wakamatsu H, Furuya E, Sugita Y, Masaoka S, Kaneda H, et al. Sleep satiation in narcoleptic patients. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1976;41:1–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Broughton R, Dunham W, Newman J, Lutley K, Dushesne P, Rivers M. Ambulatory 24 hour sleep-wake monitoring in narcolepsy–cataplexy compared to matched control. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol. 1988;70:473–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Montplaisir J, Billiard M, Takahashi S, Bell IR, Guilleminault C, Dement WC. Twenty-four-hour recording in REM-narcoleptics with special reference to nocturnal sleep disruption. Biol Psych. 1978;13(1):78–89.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Godbout R, Montplaisir J. Comparison of sleep parameters in narcoleptics with and without periodic movements of sleep. In: Koella WP, Ruther E, Schulz H, editors. Sleep ’84. Gustav: Fischer Verlag; 1985. pp. 380–2.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Mosko SS, Shampain DS, Sassin JF. Nocturnal REM latency and sleep disturbance in narcolepsy. Sleep. 1984;7:115–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mayer G, Pollmächer T, Meier-Ewert K, Schulz H. Zur Einschätzung des Behinderungsgrades bei Narkolepsie. Gesundh-Wes. 1993;55:337–42.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Schenck CH, Mahowald MW. Motor dyscontrol in narcolepsy: Rapid-Eye-Movement (REM) sleep without atonia and REM Sleep Behavior Disorder. Ann Neurol. 1992;32(1):3–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Chokroverty S. Sleep apnea in narcolepsy. Sleep. 1986;9(1):250–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lugaresi E, Coccagna G, Mantovani M, Cirignotta F. In: Guilleminault C, Dement WC, Passouant P, editors. Narcolepsy. New York: Spectrum; 1976. pp. 351–66Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Honda Y, Doi Y, Ninomiya R, Ninomiya C. Increased frequency of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus among narcoleptic patients. Sleep. 1986;9(1):254–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Schuld A, Hebebrand J, Geller F, Pollmächer T. Increased body-mass index in patients with narcolepsy. Lancet. 2000;355(9211):1274–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Lammers GJ, Pijl H, Iestra J, Langius JAE, Buunk G, Meinders AE. Spontaneous food choice in narcolepsy. Sleep. 1996;19(1):75–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Mayer G, Hellmann F, Leonhard E, Meier-Ewert K. Circadian temperature and activity rhythms in unmedicated narcoleptic patients. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1997;58(2):395–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sachs C, Kaisjer L. Autonomic control of cardiovascular reflexes in Narcolepsy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1980;43:535–9.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Nishino S, Ripley B, Overeem S, Nevsimalova S, Lammers GJ, Vankova J, et al. Low CSF hypocretin (orexin) and altered energy homeostasis in human narcolepsy. Ann Neurol. 2001;50:381–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kok SW, Overeem S, Visscher TL, Lammers GJ, Seidell JC, Pijl H, et al. Hypocretin deficiency in narcoleptic humans is associated with abdominal obesity. Obes Res. 2003 Sep;11(9):1147–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Broughton R, Ghanem Q, Hishikawa Y, Sugita Y, Nevsimalova S, Roth B. Life effects of narcolepsy in 180 patients from North America, Asia and Europe compared to matched controls. Can J Neurol Sci 1981;8(4):299–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Aldrich MS. Automobile accidents in patients with sleep disorders. Sleep. 1989;12:487–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Alaila SL. Life effects of narcolepsy: measures of negative impact, social support and psychological well-being. In: Goswanmi M, Pollak CP, Cohen FL, Thorpy MJ, Kavey NB, editors. Loss, grief and care: psychosocial aspects of narcolepsy. New York: Haworth; 1992. pp. 1–22.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Roth B, Nevsimalova S. Depression in narcolepsy and hypersomnia. Schweitz Arch Neurol Neurochir Psychiat. 1975;116:291–300.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Jones BE. Basic mechanism of sleep-wake states. In: Kryger MH, Roth T, Dement WC, editors. Principles and practice of sleep medicine. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2005. pp. 136–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Jouvet M. The role of monoamines and acethylcholine-containing neurons in the regulation of the sleep-waking cycle. Ergebn Physiol. 1972;64:166–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Nishino S, Mignot E, Dement WC. Sedative-hypnotics. In: Schatzberg AF, Nemeroff CB, editors. Textbook of psychopharmacology. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric; 2004. pp. 651–84.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Steinfels GF, Heym J, Streckjer RE, Jacobs BJ. Behavioral correlates of dopaminergic activity in freely moving cats. Brain Res. 1983;258:217–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Björklund A, Lindvall O. Dopamine-containing systems in the CNS. In Björklund A, Hökfelt T, editors. Handbook of chemical neuroanatomy, vol. 2, Classical Transmitter in the CNS, Part I. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1984. pp. 55–121.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Trulson ME. Simultaneous recording of substantia nigra neurons and voltametric release of dopamine in the caudate of behaving cats. Brain Res Bull. 1985;15:221–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ljungberg T, Apicella P, Schultz W. Responses of monkey dopamine neurons during learning of behavioral reactions. J Neurophysiol. 1992;67(1):145–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Jones BE, Bobillier P, Pin C, Jouvet M. The effect of lesions of catecholamine-containing neurons upon monoamine content of the brain and EEG and behavioral waking in the cat. Brain Res. 1973;58:157–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lu J, Jhou TC, Saper CB. Identification of wake-active dopaminergic neurons in the ventral periaqueductal gray matter. J Neurosci. 2006;26(1):193–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Moller JC, Stiasny K, Cassel W, Peter JH, Kruger HP, Oertel WH. Sleep attacks in Parkinson patients. A side effect of nonergoline dopamine agonists or a class effect of dopamine agonists? Nervenarzt. 2000;71(8):670–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Nishino S, Mignot E. Pharmacological aspects of human and canine narcolepsy. Prog Neurobiol. 1997;52(1):27–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Nishino S, Taheri S, Black J, Nofzinger E, Mignot E. The neurobiology of sleep in relation to mental illness. In: Charney DS Nestler, EJ, editor. Neurobiology of mental illness. New York: Oxford University Press; 2004. pp. 1160–79.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Saper CB, Scammell TE, Lu J. Hypothalamic regulation of sleep and circadian rhythms. Nature. 2005;437(7063):1257–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Aldrich MS, Chervin RD, Malow BA. Value of the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) for the diagnosis of narcolepsy. Sleep. 1997;20(8):620–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Sakurai T, Amemiya A, Ishii M, Matsuzaki I, Chemelli RM, Tanaka H, et al. Orexins and orexin receptors: a family of hypothalamic neuropeptides and G protein-coupled receptors that regulate feeding behavior. Cell. 1998;92:573–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    De Lecea L, Kilduff TS, Peyron C, Gao X-B, Foye PE, Danielson PE, et al. The hypocretins: hypothalamus-specific peptides with neuroexcitatory activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:322–7.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Peyron C, Tighe DK, van den Pol AN, de Lecea L, Heller HC, Sutcliffe JG, et al. Neurons containing hypocretin (orexin) project to multiple neuronal systems. J Neurosci. 1998;18(23):9996–10015.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Lin L, Faraco J, Li R, Kadotani H, Rogers W, Lin X, et al. The sleep disorder canine narcolepsy is caused by a mutation in the hypocretin (orexin) receptor 2 gene. Cell. 1999;98(3):365–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Chemelli RM, Willie JT, Sinton CM, Elmquist JK, Scammell T, Lee C, et al. Narcolepsy in orexin knockout mice: molecular genetics of sleep regulation. Cell. 1999;98:437–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Nishino S, Ripley B, Overeem S, Lammers GJ, Mignot E. Hypocretin (orexin) deficiency in human narcolepsy. Lancet. 2000;355(9197):39–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Peyron C, Faraco J, Rogers W, Ripley B, Overeem S, Charnay Y, et al. A mutation in a case of early onset narcolepsy and a generalized absence of hypocretin peptides in human narcoleptic brains. Nat Med. 2000;6(9):991–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Mignot E, Lammers GJ, Ripley B, Okun M, Nevsimalova S, Overeem S, et al. The role of cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin measurement in the diagnosis of narcolepsy and other hypersomnias. Arch Neurol. 2002;59(10):1553–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Crocker A, Espana RA, Papadopoulou M, Saper CB, Faraco J, Sakurai T, et al. Concomitant loss of dynorphin, NARP, and orexin in narcolepsy. Neurology. 2005;65(8):1184–8.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Honda M, Eriksson KS, Zhang S, Tanaka S, Lin L, Salehi A, et al. IGFBP3 colocalizes with and regulates hypocretin (orexin). PLoS ONE. 2009;4(1):e4254.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Hor H, Bartesaghi L, Kutalik Z, Vicario JL, de Andres C, Pfister C, et al. A missense mutation in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein as a cause of familial narcolepsy with cataplexy. Am J Hum Genet. 2011;89(3):474–9.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Clements CS, Reid HH, Beddoe T, Tynan FE, Perugini MA, Johns TG, et al. The crystal structure of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, a key autoantigen in multiple sclerosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100(19):11059–64.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Sakurai T. Roles of orexins in regulation of feeding and wakefulness. Neuroreport. 2002;13(8):987–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Willie JT, Chemelli RM, Sinton CM, Yanagisawa M. To eat or to sleep? Orexin in the regulation of feeding and wakefulness. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2001;24:429–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Fujiki N, Yoshida Y, Ripley B, Honda K, Mignot E, Nishino S. Changes in CSF hypocretin-1 (orexin A) levels in rats across 24 hours and in response to food deprivation. NeuroReport. 2001;12(5):993–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Lee MG, Hassani OK, Jones BE. Discharge of identified orexin/hypocretin neurons across the sleep-waking cycle. J Neurosci. 2005;25(28):6716–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Aston-Jones G, Chen S, Zhu Y, Oshinsky ML. A neural circuit for circadian regulation of arousal. Nature Neurosci. 2001;4(7):732–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Yoshida Y, Fujiki N, Nakajima T, Ripley B, Matsumura H, Yoneda H, et al. Fluctuation of extracellular hypocretin-1 (orexin A) levels in the rat in relation to the light-dark cycle and sleep-wake activities. Eur J Neurosci. 2001;14(7):1075–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Saper CB, Chou TC, Scammell TE. The sleep switch: hypothalamic control of sleep and wakefulness. Trends Neurosci. 2001;24(12):726–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Ripley B, Fujiki N, Okura M, Mignot E, Nishino S. Hypocretin levels in sporadic and familial cases of canine narcolepsy. Neurobiol Dis. 2001;8(3):525–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Thannickal TC, Nienhuis R, Siegel JM. Localized loss of hypocretin (orexin) cells in narcolepsy without cataplexy. Sleep. 2009;32(8):993–8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Roth B. Narkolepsie und Hypersomnie. Berlin: VEB Verlag Volk und Gesundheit; 1962.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Bassetti C, Aldrich MS. Idiopathic hypersomnia: a series of 42 patients. Brain. 1997;120(Pt 8):1423–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Bassetti C, Gugger M, Bischof M, Mathis J, Sturzenegger C, Werth E, et al. The narcoleptic borderland: a multimodal diagnostic approach including cerebrospinal fluid levels of hypocretin-1 (orexin A). Sleep Med. 2003;4(1):7–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Nishino S, Sakurai E, Nevsimalova S, Yoshida Y, Watanabe T, Yanai K, et al. Decreased CSF histamine in narcolepsy with and without low CSF hypocretin-1 in comparison to healthy controls. Sleep. 2009;32(2):175–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Kanbayashi T, Kodama T, Kondo H, Satoh S, Inoue Y, Chiba S, et al. CSF histamine contents in narcolepsy, idiopathic hypersomnia and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Sleep. 2009;32(2):181–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Ryer EJ, Kalra M, Oderich GS, Duncan AA, Gloviczki P, Cha S, et al. Revascularization for acute mesenteric ischemia. J Vasc Surg. 2012;55(6):1682–9.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Brown RE, Stevens DR, Haas HL. The physiology of brain histamine. Prog Neurobiol. 2001;63(6):637–72.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Lankford DA, Wellman JJ, O’Hara C. Posttraumatic narcolepsy in mild to moderate closed head injury. Sleep. 1994;17:S25–S8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Nishino S, Kanbayashi T, Fujiki N, Uchino M, Ripley B, Watanabe M, et al. CSF hypocretin levels in Guillain-Barre syndrome and other inflammatory neuropathies. Neurology. 2003;61(6):823–5.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Overeem S, Dalmau J, Bataller L, Nishino S, Mignot E, Vershuuren J, et al. Secondary narcolepsy in patients with praneoplastic anti-Ma2 antibodies is associated with hypocretin deficiency. J Sleep Res. 2001;11(suppl. 1):166–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Winkelmann J, Lin L, Schormair B, Kornum BR, Faraco J, Plazzi G, et al. Mutations in DNMT1 cause autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia, deafness and narcolepsy. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21(10):2205–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Svedruzic ZM. Dnmt1 structure and function. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2011;101:221–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Klein CJ, Botuyan MV, Wu Y, Ward CJ, Nicholson GA, Hammans S, et al. Mutations in DNMT1 cause hereditary sensory neuropathy with dementia and hearing loss. Nat Genet. 2011;43(6):595–600.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Kanbayashi T, Shimohata T, Nakashima I, Yaguchi H, Yabe I, Shimizu T, et al. Symptomatic narcolepsy in MS and NMO patients; new neurochemical and immunological implications. Arch Neurol. 2009;66:1563–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Poirier G, Montplaisir J, Dumont M, Duquette P, Decary F, Pleines J, et al. Clinical and sleep laboratory study of narcoleptic symptoms in multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 1987;37(4):693–5.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Ripley B, Overeem S, Fujiki N, Nevsimalova S, Uchino M, Yesavage J, et al. CSF hypocretin/orexin levels in narcolepsy and other neurological conditions. Neurology. 2001;57(12):2253–8.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Amiry-Moghaddam M, Ottersen OP. The molecular basis of water transport in the brain. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2003;4(12):991–1001.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Pittock SJ, Weinshenker BG, Lucchinetti CF, Wingerchuk DM, Corboy JR, Lennon VA. Neuromyelitis optica brain lesions localized at sites of high aquaporin 4 expression. Arch Neurol. 2006;63(7):964–8.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Lennon VA, Kryzer TJ, Pittock SJ, Verkman AS, Hinson SR. IgG marker of optic-spinal multiple sclerosis binds to the aquaporin-4 water channel. J Exp Med. 2005;202(4):473–7.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seiji Nishino
    • 1
    Email author
  • Masatoshi Sato
    • 1
  • Mari Matsumura
    • 1
  • Takashi Kanbayashi
    • 2
  1. 1.Stanford University Sleep and Circadian Neurobiology Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesStanford University School of MedicinePalo AltoUSA
  2. 2.Department of NeuropsychiatryAkita UniversityAkitaJapan

Personalised recommendations