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Cancer of the Vulva and Vagina

  • Lauren Krill
  • Leslie M. Randall
Chapter

Abstract

Vaginal and vulva carcinomas are uncommon gynecologic neoplasms. This chapter provides a synopsis of the available data on the epidemiology, diagnosis, staging, pathology, treatment, and prognosis of vaginal and vulvar cancers from the literature. Effective treatment for these malignancies requires utilization of multiple therapeutic modalities including radical surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. An overview of the management options as well as the evidence that has shaped contemporary practice is presented here. Due to the rarity of these diseases, optimal care requires access to specialty trained surgeons and multidisciplinary specialists whenever possible. Patients should be referred to tertiary centers to gain access to any open clinical trials and practitioners with the most experience in the specialized techniques used to effectively treat vulvar and vaginal cancers. This chapter also includes a brief summary of the management of preinvasive lesions of the vulva and vagina.

Keywords

Vaginal cancer Vulvar carcinoma Recurrence Surgical management Radiation Treatment complications Prognostic factors Vaginal and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia 

Abbreviations

AJCC

American Joint Committee on Cancer

CCA

Clear cell adenocarcinoma

DVT

Deep vein thrombosis

EBRT

External beam radiation

5-FU

5-Fluorouracil

GM

Gracilis myocutaneous flap

GOG

Gynecologic Oncology Group

HPV

Human papillomavirus

FIGO

International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics

IFLND

Inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy

IMRT

Intensity-modulated radiotherapy

ISSVD

International Society for the Study of Vulvar Diseases

LDH

Lactate dehydrogenase

LSG

Lymphoscintigraphy

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

PE

Pulmonary embolism

PET

Positron emission tomography

RT

Radiation therapy

SCC

Squamous cell carcinomas

SEER

Surveillance Epidemiology End Report

SLN

Sentinel lymph node

SLNB

Sentinel lymph node biospy

SRS

Stereotactic radiosurgery

TNM

TNM classification of malignant tumors

USA

United States of America

VAIN

Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia

VIN

Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia

WHO

World Health Organization

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Irvine Medical CenterUniversity of CaliforniaOrangeUSA

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