Advertisement

Ethics and Digital Heritage

  • Sarah ColleyEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Ethical Archaeologies: The Politics of Social Justice book series (ETHARCHAEOL, volume 4)

Abstract

This chapter uses literature review and experiences from the author’s Australian research to discuss ethical issues raised by using digital technologies in archaeology and cultural heritage practice. Technology use adds extra dimensions to principles already enshrined in professional codes of ethics such as professional standards and how to balance intellectual, cultural property and other rights against the public right to know (e.g. through open-access data policies). Additional ethical issues raised by technology include sustainability and digital preservation; the role of commercial and corporate interests in designing, developing and promoting particular products; professional and community engagement in the digital public sphere; equity of access to technology and content; and digital literacy and philosophical and sociopolitical questions about actuality and representation associated with digital heritage. The chapter briefly outlines key principles of archaeological codes of ethics and discusses technology use and digital heritage from the perspectives of political economy, technology design, cultural information standards, digital visualisation and virtual reality.

Keywords

Cultural Heritage Digital Technology Historical Archaeology Digital Literacy Second Life 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

I thank Martin Gibbs, Anne Bickford, Kenneth Aitchison and Robin Torrence for feedback on earlier drafts. NSW AOL is part funded by a grant from the NSW Office of Environment and Heritage and NSW Heritage Council. The Archaeological Communication and Digital Technologies project was seed funded by a 2009 University of Sydney Faculty of Arts Research Support Scheme Grant.

References

  1. AHAD (Australian Historical Archaeology Database). http://www.latrobe.edu.au/humanities/research/australian-historical-archaeology-database-ahad. Accessed May 19, 2012.
  2. Arthur, C. (2012, April 28–29). Too quiet in the walled garden (Sydney Morning Herald Weekend Edition, News Review: 22). Guardian News & Media.Google Scholar
  3. Backhouse, P. (2006). Drowning in data? Digital data in a British contracting unit. In T. L. Evans & P. Daly (Eds.), Digital archaeology: Bridging method and theory (pp. 50–58). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  4. Barceló, J. A. (2007). Automatic archaeology: Bridging the gap between virtual reality, artificial intelligence and archaeology. In F. Cameron & S. Kenderdine (Eds.), Theorizing digital cultural heritage: A critical discourse (pp. 437–455). Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  5. Beaudry, M. C. (2009). Ethical issues in historical archaeology. In T. Majewski & D. Gaimster (Eds.), International handbook of historical archaeology (pp. 17–29). London: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bentkowska-Kafel, A., Denard, H., & Baker, D. (Eds.). (2012). Paradata and transparency in virtual heritage. London: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  7. Billenness, C. S. G. (Ed.), (2011, May 4–5). The future of the past: Shaping new visions for EU-research in digital preservation. Report on the Proceedings of the Workshop, Cultural Heritage and Technology Enhanced Learning, European Commission Information Society and Media Directorate-General, Luxembourg, 4–5 May 2011.Google Scholar
  8. Bowrey, K., & Anderson, J. (2009). The politics of global information sharing: Whose cultural agendas are being advanced? Social & Legal Studies, 18(4), 479–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brittain, M., & Clack, T. (2007). Introduction: Archaeology and the media. In T. Clack & M. Brittain (Eds.), Archaeology and the media (pp. 11–65). Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press.Google Scholar
  10. Broderick, M., Cypher, M., & Macbeth, J. (2009). Critical masses: Augmented virtual experiences and the xenoplastic at Australia’s Cold War and nuclear heritage sites. Archaeologies, 5(2), 323–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brown, D. (2007). Te Ahu Hiko: Digital cultural heritage and indigenous objects, people and environments. In F. Cameron & S. Kenderdine (Eds.), Theorizing digital cultural heritage. A critical discourse (pp. 77–92). Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  12. BRTF (Blue Ribbon Task Force on Sustainable Digital Preservation and Access). (2008). http://brtf.sdsc.edu/about.html. Accessed May 13, 2012.
  13. Cameron, F. (2007). Beyond the cult of the replicant. Museums and historical digital objects: Traditional concerns, new discourses. In F. Cameron & S. Kenderdine (Eds.), Theorizing digital cultural heritage: A critical discourse (pp. 49–76). Cambridge: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cameron, F., & Kenderdine, S. (Eds.). (2007). Theorizing digital cultural heritage: A critical discourse. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  15. Cameron, F., & Robinson, H. (2007). Digital knowledgescapes: Cultural, theoretical, practical, and usage issues facing museum collection databases in a digital epoch. In F. Cameron & S. Kenderdine (Eds.), Theorizing digital cultural heritage: A critical discourse (pp. 165–192). Cambridge: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carroll, M. S. (2008). From data to knowledge: Creating and managing archaeological data for the future. In F. P. McManamon, A. Stout, & J. A. Barnes (Eds.), Managing archaeological resources: Global context, national programmes, local actions (pp. 241–256). Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press.Google Scholar
  17. Clarke, A., Colley, S., & Gibbs, M., (Eds.), (2012). Landscapes and materiality: Historical and contemporary archaeology in the Sydney basin. Special Issue of Archaeology in Oceania, 47 (2).Google Scholar
  18. Cochrane, A., & Russell, I. (2007). Visualizing archaeologies: A manifesto. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 17(1), 3–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Coller, M. (2009). SahulTime: Rethinking archaeological representation in the digital age. Archaeologies, 5(1), 110–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Colley, S. (2002). Uncovering Australia: Archaeology, indigenous people and the public. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.Google Scholar
  21. Colley, S. (2014). Social media and archaeological communication: An Australian survey. Archäologische Informationen, Early View. http://www.dguf.de/index.php?id=9. Accessed April 29, 2014.
  22. De Lusenet, Y. (2007). Tending the garden or harvesting the fields: Digital preservation and the UNESCO Charter on the Preservation of Digital Heritage. Library Trends, 56(1), 164–182Google Scholar
  23. Earl, G. P. (2005). Video killed engaging VR? Computer visualizations on the TV screen. In S. Smiles & S. Moser (Eds.), Envisioning the past: Archaeology and the image (pp. 204–223). Oxford: Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Earl, G. P. (2006). At the edges of the lens: Photography, graphical constructions and cinematography. In T. L. Evans & P. Daly (Eds.), Digital archaeology: Bridging method and theory (pp. 191–209). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  25. Evans, T. (2006). Research policy and directions. In L. MacDonald (Ed.), Digital heritage: Applying digital imaging to cultural heritage (pp. 549–574). Oxford: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  26. Evans, T. L., & Daly, P. (Eds.). (2006). Digital archaeology: Bridging method and theory. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  27. Fagan, B. (1995). Archaeology’s dirty secret. Archaeology, 48(8), 14–17.Google Scholar
  28. Ford, M. (2010). Archaeology: Hidden treasures. Nature, 464(, 826–827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Geismar, H. (2005). Reproduction, creativity, restriction: Material culture and copyright in Vanuatu. Journal of Social Archaeology, 5(1), 25–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gibbs, M., & Colley, S. (2012). Digital preservation, online access and historical archaeology ‘grey literature’ from New South Wales, Australia. Australian Archaeology, 75, 95–103.Google Scholar
  31. Gillings, M. (2005). The real, the virtually real, and the hyperreal: The role of VR in archaeology. In S. Smiles & S. Moser (Eds.), Envisioning the past. Archaeology and the image (pp. 223–239). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  32. Graves-Brown, P. (2009). The privatisation of experience and the archaeology of the future. In H. Cornelius & P. Angela (Eds.), Contemporary archaeologies: Excavating now (pp. 201–213). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  33. Hamilakis, Y., & Duke, P. (Eds.). (2007). Archaeology and capitalism: From ethics to politics. Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press.Google Scholar
  34. Harrison, R. (2009). Excavating second life: Cyber-archaeologies, heritage and virtual communities. Journal of Material Culture, 14(1), 75–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Harrison, R., & Schofield, J. (2009). Archaeo-ethnography, auto-archaeology: Introducing archaeologies of the contemporary past. Archaeologies, 5(2), 185–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hazan, S. (2007). A crisis of authority: New lamps for old. In F. Cameron & S. Kenderdine (Eds.), Theorizing digital cultural heritage: A critical discourse (pp. 133–148). Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  37. Hemsley, J., Cappellini, V., & Stanke, G. (Eds.). (2005a). Digital applications for cultural and heritage institutions. London: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  38. Hemsley, J., Cappellini, V., & Stanke, G. (2005b). Introduction and international overview. In J. Hemsley, V. Cappellini, & G. Stanke (Eds.), Digital applications for cultural and heritage institutions (pp. 1–13). London: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  39. Hemsley, J., Cappellini, V., & Stanke, G. (2005c). Conclusions and future trends. In J. Hemsley, V. Cappellini, & G. Stanke (Eds.), Digital applications for cultural and heritage institutions (pp. 295–300). London: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  40. Hodder, I. (1999). The archaeological process. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  41. Hollowell, J., & Nicholas, G. (2008). Intellectual property issues in archaeological publication: Some questions to consider. Archaeologies, 4(2), 208–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Holtorf, C. (2007). Archaeology is a brand! The meaning of archaeology in contemporary popular culture. Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press.Google Scholar
  43. Holtorf, C. (2009). Imagine this: Archaeology in the experience society. In H. Cornelius & P. Angela (Eds.), Contemporary archaeologies: Excavating now (pp. 47–64). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  44. Holtorf, C. (2010). Heritage values in contemporary popular culture. In G. S. Smith, P. M. Messenger & H. A. Soderland (Eds.), Heritage values in contemporary society (pp. 43–54). Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press.Google Scholar
  45. Ioannides, M., Fellner, D., Georgopoulos, A., & Hadjimitsis, D. (Eds.), (2010). Digital heritage. Third International Conference, EuroMed 2010, Lemesos, Cyprus, November 8–13 2010, Proceedings (SpringerLINK Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol 6336).Google Scholar
  46. Johnson, M. (2010). Archaeological theory: An introduction (2nd ed.). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  47. Joyce, R., & Tringham, R. (2007). Feminist adventures in hypertext. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 14, 328–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kansa, E. (2007). Publishing primary data on the World Wide Web: Opencontext.org and an open future for the past. Technical Briefs in Historical Archaeology, 2, 1–11.Google Scholar
  49. Kansa, E. C., Kansa, S. W., Burton, M. M., & Stankowski, C. (2010). Googling the grey: Open data, web services, and semantics. Archaeologies, 6(2), 301–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lister, M., Dovey, J., Giddings, S., Grant, I., & Kelly, K. (2009). New media: A critical introduction (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  51. Lock, G. (2003). Using computers in archaeology: Towards virtual pasts. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  52. London Charter for the Computer-Based Visualisation of Cultural Heritage. (2009). http://www.londoncharter.org/. Accessed May 4, 2012.
  53. Mason, I. (2007). Cultural information standards: Political territory and rich rewards. In F. Cameron & S. Kenderdine (Eds.), Theorizing digital cultural heritage: A critical discourse (pp. 223–243). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. McCarthy, G. (2007). Finding a future for digital cultural heritage resources using contextual information frameworks. In F. Cameron & S. Kenderdine (Eds.), Theorizing digital cultural heritage: A critical discourse (pp. 245–260). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  55. Meskell, L., & Pels, P. (Eds.). (2005). Embedding ethics: Shifting boundaries of the anthropological profession. Oxford and New York: Berg.Google Scholar
  56. Morgan, C. (2009). (Re)Building Çatalhöyük: Changing virtual reality in archaeology. Archaeologies, 5(3), 468–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Parry, R. (2007). Recoding the museum: Digital heritage and the technologies of change. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Perry, S. (2009). Fractured media: Challenging the dimensions of archaeology’s typical visual modes of engagement. Archaeologies, 5(3), 389–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Pisani, E. (2011, January 15). All will be welcome at harvest of health research. Opinion. Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/opinion/society-and-culture/all-will-be-welcome-at-harvest-of-health-research-20110114-19r78.html. Accessed May 19, 2012.
  60. Pujol, L., & Champion, E. (2012). Evaluating presence in cultural heritage projects. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 18(1), 83–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Pyburn, K. A. (2008). Public archaeology, Indiana Jones and honesty. Archaeologies, 4(2), 201–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ribble, M. (2012). Digital citizenship: Using technology appropriately. http://www.digitalcitizenship.net. Accessed May 15, 2012.
  63. Richards, J. (2006). Archaeology, e-publication and the semantic web. Antiquity, 80(310), 970–979.Google Scholar
  64. Richards, J. (2008). Managing digital preservation and access: The archaeology data service. In F. P. McManamon, A. Stout, & J. A. Barnes (Eds.), Managing archaeological resource: Global context, national programmes, local actions (pp. 173–194). Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press.Google Scholar
  65. Ross, S.A. (2012). NeCTAR research tools project. Federated archaeological information management systems: A heterogeneous, modular, and federated approach to archaeological information management. Presentation at the Digital Humanities Australasia 2012: Building, mapping, connecting [Conference]—aaDH12. Canberra, Australia: ANU. http://hdl.handle.net/1885/9004
  66. Russo, A., & Watkins, J. (2007). Digital cultural communication: Audience and remediation. In F. Cameron & S. Kenderdine (Eds.), Theorizing digital cultural heritage: A critical discourse (pp. 149–164). Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  67. Ryzewski, K. (2009). Seven interventions with the Flatlands: Archaeology and its mode of engagement. Contributions from the WAC-6 Session, ‘Experience, Modes of Engagement, Archaeology’. Archaeologies, 5(3), 361–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sanders, D. H. (2011). Virtual reconstruction of maritime sites and artifacts. In A. Catsambis, B. Ford, & D. L. Hamilton (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of maritime archaeology (pp. 305–326). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  69. Shanks, M. (2007). Digital media, agile design, and the politics of archaeological authorship. In T. Clack & M. Brittain (Eds.), Archaeology and the media (pp. 273–289). Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press.Google Scholar
  70. Shanks, M. (2009). Engagement: Archaeological design and engineering. Archaeologies, 5(3), 546–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Silberman, N. A. (2010). Technology, heritage values, and interpretation. In G. S. Smith, P. M. Messenger & H. A. Soderland (Eds.), Heritage values in contemporary society (pp. 63–73). Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press.Google Scholar
  72. Smith, G. S., Messenger, P. M., & Soderland, H. A. (Eds.). (2010). Heritage values in contemporary society. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press.Google Scholar
  73. Taylor, T. (2007). Screening biases: Archaeology, television, and the banal. In T. Clack & M. Brittain (Eds.), Archaeology and the media (pp. 187–195). Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press.Google Scholar
  74. The Wayback Machine. (2012). http://archive.org/web/web.php. Accessed May 18, 2012.
  75. UNESCO. (2003). Charter on the preservation of digital heritage. http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-url_id=17721&url_do=do_topic&url_section=201.html. Accessed May 19, 2012.
  76. Verbeek, P.-P. (2011). Moralizing technology: Understanding and designing the morality of things. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Webmoor, T. (2008). From silicon valley to the valley of Teotihuacan: The ‘Yahoo!s’ of new media and digital heritage. Visual Anthropology Review, 24(2), 183–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Wildesen, L. (1984). The search for an ethic in archaeology: An historical perspective. In E. L. Green (Ed.), Ethics and values in archaeology (pp. 3–12). New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  79. Witmore, C. (2009). Prolegomena to open pasts: on archaeological memory practices. Archaeologies, 5(3), 511–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Zubrow, E. B. (2006). Digital archaeology: A historical context. In T. L. Evans & P. Daly (Eds.), Digital archaeology: Bridging method and theory (pp. 10–32). London: Routledge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Archaeology & Ancient HistoryUniversity of LeicesterLE1 7RHUK

Personalised recommendations