Advertisement

Tourism, World Heritage and Local Communities: An Ethical Framework in Practice at Angkor

  • Richard MackayEmail author
  • Stuart Palmer
Chapter
Part of the Ethical Archaeologies: The Politics of Social Justice book series (ETHARCHAEOL, volume 4)

Abstract

Ethical decision-making processes seek to facilitate informed, reflective and deliberative choice of best action and outcomes which take account of decision maker and stakeholder values and principles whilst responding to contextual circumstance. However, in practice, conflicting perceptions or ranking of values as well as external pressures can obscure a clear view of ‘what to do?’ Nowhere is this challenge more apparent than at World Heritage sites with both mass tourism and living resident local communities.

At the World Heritage site of Angkor, Cambodia, the combination of rapidly growing tourism and the intangible heritage of a massive lived-in sacred landscape provides an opportunity to explore the interaction between human rights, intellectual cultural property and heritage management and the role that an ethical decision-making framework can play in navigating that interaction.

This chapter initially explores similarities and differences between the theoretical models and concepts used by applied ethicists and the actual practice of decision making in heritage management. An ethical decision-making framework is outlined and parallels highlighted with aspects of international declarations on human rights and rights of indigenous peoples as well as with cultural heritage management decision making and practice.

Consideration of values, stakeholder relationships, overarching principles and pressures (ingredients of the ethical framework) underpin both ethical decision making and good heritage practice. However, challenging issues arise where values are contested or not well articulated and where external pressures place values under threat.

At Angkor, traditional cultural practice is an aspect of heritage value that was not recognised in the initial World Heritage List citation in 1992 but is now understood to be fundamental to both the value of the place itself and to Khmer people for whom Angkor is both ‘home’ and a symbol of nation. However, this ‘culture’ also has important ‘economic’ value to the ever-growing tourism sector. There is currently a significant disconnect between the beneficiaries of the economic value and traditional owners of the cultural value.

The chapter considers a local community-based tourism project at Angkor, which is being undertaken within the parameters of the ‘Angkor Heritage Management Framework’ project: a joint initiative of UNESCO, the Royal Government of Cambodia and the Australian Government. The project demonstrates how application of an ethical framework for cultural heritage has fostered a tourism product which not only balances but also innovatively exploits synergies between the conservation of heritage values, the needs of the local community and the interests of the tourism industry.

Keywords

Cultural Heritage World Heritage Ethical Framework Multidimensional Poverty World Heritage Site 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This paper presents a framework that is derived from the work and experience of the St James Ethics Centre, an Australian centre for applied ethics, working with public, private and not for profit organisations and professional associations. The case study draws heavily upon the Angkor Heritage Management Framework project being undertaken by Godden Mackay Logan Pty Ltd for UNESCO, the Royal Government of Cambodia and the Australian Government, whose support is gratefully acknowledged. We also particularly thank Dr Georgina Lloyd, Nicholas Hall and Prof Sharon Sullivan for their generous assistance and our Khmer colleagues for the privilege of working on and at Angkor and amid their culture and their traditions.

References

  1. Australia ICOMOS. (1999). The Burra Charter: The Australia ICOMOS Charter for Places of Cultural Significance. Available via DIALOG: http://australia.icomos.org/publications/charters/ Accessed April 2, 2013.
  2. Australian Heritage Commission. (2002). Ask first: A guide to respecting indigenous heritage places and values. Canberra: Australian Heritage Commission.Google Scholar
  3. Beschaouch, A. (2010). Angkor saved, prosperity on the way. In Angkor: Fifteen years of international cooperation for conservation and sustainable development (pp 18–26). Phnom Penh: UNESCO ICC (International Coordinating Committee for the Safeguarding and Sustainable Development of the Historic Site of Angkor [and] Phnom Penh),Google Scholar
  4. Carroll, M., & Shaw, E. (2013). Ethical maturity in the helping professions: Making difficult life and work decisions. London: Jessica Kingsley.Google Scholar
  5. China ICOMOS, in association with the Getty Conservation Institute. (2004). China principles: Conservation and management principles for cultural heritage sites in China. http://www.getty.edu/conservation/our_projects/field_projects/china/china_publications.html. Accessed May 2, 2013.
  6. Demas, M. (2000, May 19–22). Planning for conservation and management of archaeological sites: A values-based approach. In J. M. Teutonico & G. Palumbo (Eds.), Management planning for archaeological sites: An international workshop organized by the Getty Conservation Institute and Loyola Marymount University (pp. 22–50). Los Angeles: Getty Conservation Institute.Google Scholar
  7. Frankena, W. (1973). Ethics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  8. George, W. (2010). Intangible cultural heritage, ownership, copyrights, and tourism. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 4(4), 376–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Godden Mackay Logan Pty Ltd. (2013a). Angkor Heritage Management Framework. http://www.gml.com.au/resources/angkor-hmf/. Accessed April 30, 2013.
  10. Godden Mackay Logan Pty Ltd. (2013b). Natural Circuit at North Baray Angkor Park. http://www.gml.com.au/resources/angkor-hmf/naturalcircuit/. Accessed May 1, 2013.
  11. Godden Mackay Logan Pty Ltd, the APSARA National Authority and UNESCO. (2012). Angkor World Heritage Area Tourism Management Plan. International Committee for the Safeguarding and Development of Angkor and Surrounding Areas. Available via DIALOG. http://www.gml.com.au/resources/angkor-hmf/. Accessed April 30, 2013.
  12. Hall, N., Richard, M., & Sullivan, S. (2014). Taming tourism at Angkor. In B. Baillie (Ed), Angkor: Heritage Tourism and Development. Multidisciplinary perspectives in archaeological heritage management. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  13. Hor, R. (2011). APSARA Authority: ICH safeguarding in the Angkor living site, Siem Reap. Intangible Cultural Heritage Courier for Asia and the Pacific, 8, 13.Google Scholar
  14. Im, S. (2003). Angkor: A living heritage site. Report for living heritage sites programme, first strategy meeting, Bangkok: SPAFA Headquarters.Google Scholar
  15. Im, S. (2007). Social values and community content. In Living with Heritage: Report of the living with Heritage Technical Committee. Phnom Penh: APSARA Authority.Google Scholar
  16. International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs. (2012). World heritage and indigenous peoples: A call to action. Resolutions of an international expert workshop on the world heritage convention and indigenous peoples. Copenhagen. http://whc.unesco.org/uploads/events/documents/event-906-1.pdf. Accessed May 4, 2013.
  17. Journeys Within. (2013). A fresh approach to Angkor Park. Blog Post. http://www.journeyswithintravelblog.com/2013/04/09/a-fresh-approach/. Accessed May 1, 2013.
  18. Kerr, J. S. (2004). The conservation plan: A guide to the preparation of conservation plans for places of European Cultural Significance (6th ed.). Sydney: National Trust of Australia.Google Scholar
  19. Khuon, K-N. (2006). Angkor: Site management and local communities. Unpublished paper delivered to the Angkor—Landscape, City and Temple conference, University of Sydney.Google Scholar
  20. Kong, S, & Horth, V. (2012). Tourism Statistics Annual Report 2012. Cambodian Ministry of Tourism, http://www.tourismcambodia.org/images/mot/statistic_reports/tourism_statistics_annual_report_2012.pdf. Accessed May 1, 2013.
  21. Kyoto Vision. (2012, November 8). Published by participants gathered in Kyoto on the occasion of the closing event of the celebrations of the 40th anniversary of the world heritage convention, http://whc.unesco.org/en/news/953/. Accessed May 4, 2013.
  22. Lloyd, G. (2009). The safeguarding of intangible cultural heritage: Law and policy. A case study of Angkor. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Sydney.Google Scholar
  23. Lloyd, G., & Im, S. (2013). Cambodian experiences of the manifestation and management of intangible heritage and tourism at a World Heritage site. In R. Staiff, R. Bushell, & S. Watson (Eds.), Heritage and tourism: Place, encounter, engagement (pp. 228–250). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  24. Lloyd, G, & Khuon, K-N. (in press). Safeguarding Angkor’s intangible heritage. In B. Baillie (Ed.), Angkor: Heritage Tourism and Development. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  25. Mackay, R., & Sullivan, S. (2008). Angkor: Heritage values and issues. Sydney: University of Sydney.Google Scholar
  26. Negussie, E., & Wondimu, G. S. (2012). Managing world heritage sites as a tool for development in Ethiopia: The need for sustainable tourism in Lalibela. In M.-T. Albert, M. Richon, M. J. Viñals, & A. Witcomb (Eds.), Community development through world heritage (pp. 93–99). Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  27. Poulios, I. (2010). Moving beyond a values-based approach to heritage conservation. Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites, 12(2), 170–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Scarre, C., & Scarre, G. (2006). Introduction. In C. Scarre & G. Scarre (Eds.), The ethics of archaeology: Philosophical perspectives on archaeological practice (pp. 1–12). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Smith, L., & Waterton, E. (2009). Heritage, archaeology and communities. London: Duckworth.Google Scholar
  30. Stepwise Heritage and Tourism. (2013). Stepping stones for tourism. Available via DIALOG, www.steppingstonesfortourism.net. Accessed April 16, 2013.
  31. Titchen, S. (2002, May 15). Cultural heritage and sacred sites: World Heritage from an Indigenous perspective. Presentation to the world heritage from an indigenous perspective conference. New York, www.dialoguebetweennations.com/N2N/PFII/English/SarahTitchen.htm, Accessed April 27, 2013.
  32. UNCTAD and WTO. (2001). The least developed countries and international tourism. Tourism in the least developed countries. Published for the third UN conference on the least developed countries, Madrid: World Tourism Organisation.Google Scholar
  33. UNESCO. (2003). Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage. http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-url_id=17716&url_do=do_topic&url_section=201.html. Accessed May 4, 2013.
  34. UNESCO. (2013). Angkor. World Heritage List. http://whc.unesco.org/en/criteria/. Accessed May 4, 2013.
  35. UNITAR (United Nations Institute for Training and Research). (2013). The Management and Conservation of World Heritage Sites 2013 Workshop. http://www.unitar.org/hiroshima/management-and-conservation-of-world-heritage-sites. Accessed May 12, 2013.
  36. United Nations. (2008). United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples 2007. http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/documents/DRIPS_en.pdf. Accessed May 4, 2013.
  37. United Nations Commission on Human Rights, Economic and Social Council. (1995). Principles & guidelines for the protection of the heritage of indigenous people. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1995/26, GE. 95-12808 (E). Elaborated by the Special Rapporteur, Mrs. Erica-Irene Daes, in conformity with resolution 1993/44 and decision 1994/105 of the Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities. http://ankn.uaf.edu/iks/protect.html. Accessed May 4, 2013.
  38. United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Index. http://hdrstats.undp.org/en/countries/profiles/KHM.html. Accessed April 27, 2013.
  39. Viñals, M. J., & Maryland, M. (2012). Heritage, tourism and local community interactions within the framework of site management. In M.-T. Albert, M. Richon, M. J. Viñals, & A. Witcomb (Eds.), Community development through world heritage (pp. 40–47). Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  40. Waterton, E., Smith, L., & Campbell, G. (2006). The utility of discourse analysis to heritage studies: The Burra Charter and social inclusion. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 12(4), 339–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Williams, B. (1985). Ethics and the limits of philosophy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Winter, T. (2007). Post-conflict heritage, postcolonial tourism, culture, politics and development at Angkor. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  43. Winter, T. (2009). The modernities of heritage and tourism: Interpretations of an Asian future. Journal of Heritage Tourism, 4(2), 105–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. WIPO-UNESCO. (1999). Regional Consultation on the Protection of Expressions of Folklore for Countries of Asia and the Pacific. http://www.wipo.int/meetings/en/details.jsp?meeting_id=3726. Accessed April 30, 2013.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Godden Mackay Logan Pty Ltd Heritage ConsultantsRedfernAustralia
  2. 2.St James Ethics CentreSydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations