Craniomaxillofacial Implants Based on 3D Modeling

  • Marc C. Metzger
  • Rainer Schmelzeisen


A new era of surgical reconstruction began in the early 1990s with the introduction of computer-assisted surgery. In the year 1994, the application of this technology for craniomaxillofacial surgery was introduced by Haßfeld et al. who presented the removal of skull base tumors, followed by other application areas such as foreign body removal, implantology, and orthognathic surgery. By further development of planning software, it was possible to merge different image modalities, to segment anatomical fragments, to mirror the unaffected to the affected side, to import virtual implants and dental splints, and to export the virtual reconstructions for the creation of models. In parallel, new printing and milling technologies allowed the manufacturing of patient-specific models and implants on the basis of CT data.


Craniomaxillofacial implants 3D modeling Cone beam computer tomography (CBCT) Orbital reconstruction 


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Maxillofacial and Oral SurgeryUniversity of FreiburgFreiburgGermany

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