Digital Planning in Pediatric Craniofacial Surgery

  • Samer Elia Haber
  • Anup Patel
  • Derek M. Steinbacher


Pediatric craniofacial surgery requires complex reconstructions, with spatial repositioning of structures and compartments within the head and facial region. Radiologic and morphometric assessments have always been central to both preoperative planning and gauging postoperative results. With the advent of sophisticated, three-dimensional planning tools, the accuracy and reproducibility of challenging craniomaxillofacial reconstructions can be facilitated. In this chapter we outline current applications of computer-based planning utilized for pediatric craniofacial surgery. Example cases have been chosen to represent the scope of craniomaxillofacial reconstruction and implementation of 3D technology. These include:
  • Craniosynostosis (syndromic and non-syndromic)

  • Cranial defect or dysmorphology

  • Orbital repositioning or translocation

  • Mandibular reconstruction using free fibula flap

  • Mandibular distraction for micrognathia with airway obstruction (neonatal and in older children)

  • Orthognathic surgery


CAD/CAM Computer-assisted surgery Maxillofacial procedures Pediatrics Three-dimensional imaging Tomography Craniosynostoses Free tissue flap Distraction osteogenesis Mandibular advancement 







Computer-aided design


Computer-aided manufacturing


Computed Tomography


Digital imaging and communications in medicine


Hemifacial microsomia


Virtual Surgical Planning


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Samer Elia Haber
    • 1
  • Anup Patel
    • 2
  • Derek M. Steinbacher
    • 3
  1. 1.Plastic and Maxillofacial Surgery DepartmentHôtel Dieu de France HospitalBeirutLebanon
  2. 2.Yale Plastic SurgeryNew HavenUSA
  3. 3.Craniomaxillofacial SurgeryYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA

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