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Immune System Modulation by Helminth Infections: Potential Impact on HIV Transmission and Disease Progression

  • Mkunde ChachageEmail author
  • Christof Geldmacher
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 828)

Abstract

The co-prevalence of helminth and HIV-1 infections in sub-Saharan Africa has fueled the suspicion that helminth infections constitute an important factor contributing to the high HIV prevalence in this region. Furthermore, it has been hypothesized that anti-helminthic treatment of co-infected HIV-positive patients is a potentially cost effective public health measurement that delays HIV disease progression and thus eligibility to antiretroviral therapy. Here we review the scientific data on the interaction between different helminth species and HIV on an epidemiological level and address pathogenic mechanisms that have been hypothesized to increase HIV susceptibility or rate of disease progression in helminth-HIV co-infected patients. We first focus on the basic concepts of HIV transmission, pathogenesis and then aim to consolidate the available data from human cohort studies, animal models and in vitro experiments to provide a coherent overview on the current state of knowledge in this field.

Keywords

HIV Schistosome infections Soil transmitted Helminths HIV transmission HIV disease progression Immune activation Microbial translocation 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Cellular ImmunologyNational Institute for Medical Research-Mbeya Medical Research Centre (NIMR-MMRC)MbeyaTanzania
  2. 2.Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical MedicineMedical center of the University of Munish (LMU)MunichGermany
  3. 3.German Center for Infection Research (DZIF)partner site MunichGermany

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