Fabrication of Channel Waveguides in Chalcogenide Glass Films by a Focused Laser Beam

  • K. Shemesh
  • Yu. Kaganovskii
  • M. RosenbluhEmail author
Part of the Springer Series in Optical Sciences book series (SSOS, volume 189)


We demonstrate a simple optical method for the fabrication of micrometer-width channel waveguides in chalcogenide glass (ChG) films, which does not require lift-off lithography. The method is based on photo-induced mass transport. For our experiments we use 400–600-nm-thick amorphous films of As2S3 and As10Se90 deposited in vacuum onto glass substrates. The waveguides are fabricated by a focused Ar ion laser beam (λ = 514 nm) with a waist diameter of ~0.7 μm. The positioning of the film in x-y-z-directions is controlled by computerized motor-driven stages whereby complex waveguide configurations can be drawn. For coupling of light (λ = 1.55 μm) between an optical fiber and the waveguide we used gratings, fabricated in the ChG, with a period of 0.8–1.5 μm and amplitude of 50–100 nm. The gratings are fabricated in an in-plane taper by laser illumination of the selected film area by two crossing p-polarized laser beams. We discuss mechanisms and kinetics of photo-induced mass transport in ChG films and possible contribution of viscous flow induced by a temperature gradient caused by the local heating of the film by the focused laser beam.


Chalcogenide Glass Channel Waveguide Grating Coupler Waveguide Fabrication Stage Speed 
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This work was supported by the Israel Science Foundation (Grant # 894/10).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhysicsBar-Ilan UniversityRamat-GanIsrael

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