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Epidemiology of Trematode Infections

  • Jong-Yil Chai
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 766)

Abstract

Human-infecting digenetic trematodes are approximately 70 species which belong to 60 genera over the world. According to their habitat in the definitive hosts, they are classified as blood flukes (Schistosoma japonicum. S. mekongi, S. mansoni, S. haematobium, and S. intercalatum), liver flukes (Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, O. felineus, Metorchis conjunctus, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Fasciola hepatica, and F. gigantica), lung flukes (Paragonimus westermani, P. heterotremus, P. skrjabini, P. skrjabini miyazakii, P. kellicotti, P. mexicanus, P. africanus, and P. uterobilateralis), and intestinal flukes (Metagonimus yokogawai, M. miyatai, M. takahashii, Heterophyes nocens, H. heterophyes, Haplorchis taichui, H. pumilio, H. yokogawai, Centrocestus formosanus, Echinostoma revolutum, E. ilocanum, E. hortense, Echinochasmus japonicus, E. lilliputanus, Artyfechinostomum malayanum, A. oraoni, Clinostomum complanatum, Eurytrema pancreaticum, Fasciolopsis buski, Gymnophalloides seoi, Neodiplostomum seoulense, Prosthodendrium molenkampi, Phaneropsolus bonnei, and Plagiorchis muris). The mode of transmission to humans include contact with cercariae contaminated in water (schistosomes) or ingestion of raw or improperly cooked fish (liver flukes, heterophyids, and echinostomes), snails (echinostomes and gymnophallids), amphibians, and reptiles (neodiplostomes). Praziquantel has been proved to be highly effective against most species of trematode infections except fascioliasis. Epidemiological surveys and detection of human infections are required for better understanding of the geographical distribution and endemicity of each trematode species.

Keywords

Intermediate Host Human Infection Definitive Host Reservoir Host Liver Fluke 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine, College of MedicineSeoul National UniversitySeoulSouth Korea

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