Epidemiology of Trematode Infections

  • Jong-Yil ChaiEmail author
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 766)


Human-infecting digenetic trematodes are approximately 70 species which belong to 60 genera over the world. According to their habitat in the definitive hosts, they are classified as blood flukes (Schistosoma japonicum. S. mekongi, S. mansoni, S. haematobium, and S. intercalatum), liver flukes (Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, O. felineus, Metorchis conjunctus, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Fasciola hepatica, and F. gigantica), lung flukes (Paragonimus westermani, P. heterotremus, P. skrjabini, P. skrjabini miyazakii, P. kellicotti, P. mexicanus, P. africanus, and P. uterobilateralis), and intestinal flukes (Metagonimus yokogawai, M. miyatai, M. takahashii, Heterophyes nocens, H. heterophyes, Haplorchis taichui, H. pumilio, H. yokogawai, Centrocestus formosanus, Echinostoma revolutum, E. ilocanum, E. hortense, Echinochasmus japonicus, E. lilliputanus, Artyfechinostomum malayanum, A. oraoni, Clinostomum complanatum, Eurytrema pancreaticum, Fasciolopsis buski, Gymnophalloides seoi, Neodiplostomum seoulense, Prosthodendrium molenkampi, Phaneropsolus bonnei, and Plagiorchis muris). The mode of transmission to humans include contact with cercariae contaminated in water (schistosomes) or ingestion of raw or improperly cooked fish (liver flukes, heterophyids, and echinostomes), snails (echinostomes and gymnophallids), amphibians, and reptiles (neodiplostomes). Praziquantel has been proved to be highly effective against most species of trematode infections except fascioliasis. Epidemiological surveys and detection of human infections are required for better understanding of the geographical distribution and endemicity of each trematode species.


Intermediate Host Human Infection Definitive Host Reservoir Host Liver Fluke 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Beaver PC, Jung RC, Cupp EW (1984) Clinical parasitology, 9th edn. Lea & Febiger, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Narain K, Agatsuma T, Blair D (2010) Paragonimus. In: Liu D (ed) Molecular detection of foodborne pathogens. CRC, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chai JY (2007) Intestinal flukes. In: Murrell KD, Fried B (eds) Food-borne parasitic zoonoses: fish and plant-borne parasites, world class parasites. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chai JY (2009) Echinostomes in humans. In: Fried B, Toledo R (eds) The biology of echinostomes. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Garcia LS (2007) Diagnostic medical parasitology, 5th edn. ASM, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gryseels B, Strickland GT (2013) Schistosomiasis. In: Magill AJ, Ryan ET, Hill D, Solomon T (eds) Hunter’s tropical medicine and emerging infectious diseases, 9th edn. Elsevier Saunders, LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ohmae H, Sinuon M, Kirinoki M et al (2004) Schistosomiasis mekongi: from discovery to control. Parasitol Int 53:135–142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chitsulo L, Engels D, Montresor A et al (2000) The global status of schistosomiasis and its control. Acta Trop 77:41–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Urbani C, Sinuon M, Socheat D et al (2002) Epidemiology and control of mekongi schistosomiasis. Acta Trop 82:157–168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sinuon M, Sayasone S, Odermatt-Biays S et al (2010) Schistosoma mekongi in Cambodia and Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Adv Parasitol 72:179–203Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Caldeira RL, Janootti-Passos LK, Carvalho DS (2009) Molecular epidemiology of Brazilian Biomphalaria: a review of the identification of species and the detection of infected snails. Acta Trop 111:1–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gryseels B, Polman K, Clerinx J et al (2006) Human schistosomiasis. Lancet 368:1106–1118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rim HJ (1982) Clonorchiasis. In: Steele JH (ed) CRC handbook series in zoonoses, Section C: Parasitic zoonoses, vol III, Trematode zoonoses. CRC, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rim HJ (1990) Clonorchiasis in Korea. Korean J Parasitol 28:S63–S78Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rim HJ (2005) Clonorchiasis: an update. J Helminthol 79:269–281PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chen M, Lu Y, Hua X et al (1994) Progress in assessment of morbidity due to Clonorchis sinensis infection: a review of recent literature. Trop Dis Bull 91:R7–R65Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chai JY, Murrell KD, Lymbery AJ (2005) Fish-borne parasitic zoonoses: status and issues. Int J Parasitol 35:1233–1254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ooi HK, Chen CI, Lin SC et al (1997) Metacercariae in fishes of Sun Moon Lake which is an endemic area for Clonorchis sinensis in Taiwan. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 28:S222–S223Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cho SH, Sohn WM, Na BK et al (2011) Prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae in freshwater fish from three latitudinal regions in the Korean Peninsula. Korean J Parasitol 49:385–398PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    De NV, Murrell KD, Cong LD et al (2003) The food-borne trematode zoonoses of Vietnam. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 34:12–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hong ST, Fang Y (2012) Clonorchis sinensis and clonorchiasis, an update. Parasitol Int 61:17–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Korean Association of Health Promotion (2004) Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Korea—The 7th report, Seoul, Korea (Monographic series in Korean)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yu SH, Mansanori K, Li XM et al (2003) Epidemiological investigation on Clonorchis sinensis in human population in an area of south China. Jpn J Infect Dis 56:168–171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fang Y, Cheng Y, Wu J et al (2008) Current prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis infection in endemic areas of China. Chin J Parasitol Parasit Dis 26:81–86 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cross JH (1984) Changing patterns of some trematode infections in Asia. Arzneimittelfursch 34:1224–1226Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cam CDT, Yajima A, Viet KN et al (2008) Prevalence, intensity and risk factors for clonorchiasis and possible use of questionnaires to individuals at risk in northern Vietnam. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 102:1263–1268Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mas-Coma S, Bargues MD (1997) Human liver flukes: a review. Res Rev Parasitol 57:145–218Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kaewkes S (2003) Taxonomy and biology of liver flukes. Acta Trop 88:177–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Giboda M, Ditrich O, Scholz T et al (1991) Current status of food-borne parasitic zoonoses in Laos. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 22:S56–S61Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ditrich O, Nasincova V, Scholz T et al (1992) Larval stages of medically important flukes (Trematoda) from Vientiane Province, Laos. Part II. Cercariae. Ann Parasitol Hum Comp 67:75–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kiatsopit N, Sithithaworn P, Saijuntha W et al (2012) Exceptionally high prevalence of infection of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos with Opisthorchis viverrini cercariae in different wetlands in Thailand and Lao PDR. Am J Trop Med Hyg 86:464–469PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rim HJ (1982) Opisthorchiasis. In: Steele JH (ed) CRC handbook series in zoonoses, Section C: Parasitic zoonoses, vol III, Trematode zoonoses. CRC, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sithithaworn P, Haswell-Elkins M (2003) Epidemiology of Opisthorchis viverrini. Acta Trop 88:187–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Yong TS, Shi EH, Chai JY et al (2012) High prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini infection in a riparian population in Takeo Province, Cambodia. Korean J Parasitol 50:173–176PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sohn WM, Yong TS, Eom KS et al (2012) Prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini infection in humans and fish in Kratie Province, Cambodia. Acta Trop 124:215–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Yossepowitch O, Gotesman T, Assous M et al (2004) Opisthorchiasis from imported raw fish. Emerg Infect Dis 10:2122–2126PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Andrews RH, Sithithaworn P, Petney TN (2008) Opisthorchis viverrini: an underestimated parasite in world health. Trends Parasitol 24:497–501PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rim HJ, Chai JY, Min DY et al (2003) Prevalence of intestinal parasite infections on a national scale among primary schoolchildren in Laos. Parasitol Res 91:267–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chai JY, Han ET, Guk SM et al (2007) High prevalence of liver and intestinal fluke infections among residents of Savannakhet Province, Laos. Korean J Parasitol 45:213–218PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sayasone S, Odermatt P, Phoumindr N et al (2007) Epidemiology of Opisthorchis viverrini in a rural district of southern Lao PDR. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 101:40–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Chai JY, Han ET, Shin EH et al (2009) High prevalence of Haplorchis taichui, Prosthodendrium molenkampi, and other helminth infections among people in Khammouane province, Lao PDR. Korean J Parasitol 47:243–247PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Le TH, Nguyen NTB, Truong NH et al (2012) Development of mitochondrial loop-mediated isothermal application for detection of the small liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini (Opisthorchiidae; Trematoda; Platyhelminthes). J Clin Microbiol 50:1178–1184PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Poulin R (2006) Global warming and temperature-mediated increases in cercarial emergence in trematode parasites. Parasitology 132:143–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Pozio E, Armigbacco O, Ferri F et al (2013) Opisthorchis felineus, an emerging infection in Italy and its implication for the European Union. Acta Trop 126:54–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Mordvinov VA, Yurlova NI, Ogorodova LM et al (2012) Opisthorchis felineus and Metorchis bilis are the main agents of liver fluke infection of humans in Russia. Parasitol Int 61:25–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    MacLean JD, Arthur JR, Ward BJ et al (1996) Common-source outbreak of acute infection due to the North American liver fluke Metorchis conjunctus. Lancet 347:154–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Behr MA, Gyorkos TW, Kokoskin E et al (1998) North American liver fluke (Metorchis conjunctus) in a Canadian aboriginal population: a submerging human pathogen? Can J Public Health 89:258–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Yamaguti S (1958) Part I. The digenetic trematodes of vertebrates. In: Systema Helminthum, Vol. I. Interscience, New York.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Lin J, Chen Y, Li Y (2001) The discovery of natural infection of human with Metorchis orientalis and the investigation of its focus. Chin J Zoonoses 17:38–53 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Cheng Y, Xu L, Chen B et al (2005) Survey on the current status of important human parasitic infections in Fujian Province. Chin J Parasitol Parasit Dis 23:283–287 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Komiya Y (1965) Metacercaria in Japan and adjacent territories. Progress of medical parasitology in Japan, vol 2. Meguro Parasitological Museum, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Mas-Coma S, Bargues MD, Valero MA (2005) Fascioliasis and other plant-borne trematode zoonoses. Int J Parasitol 35:1255–1278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Liu D, Zhu XQ (2013) Fasciola. In: Liu D (ed) Molecular detection of foodborne pathogens. CRC, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bargues MD, Mas-Coma S (2005) Reviewing lymnaeid vectors of fascioliasis by robosomal DNA sequence analyses. J Helminthol 79:257–267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Chen M, Mott KE (1990) Progress in assessment of morbidity due to Fasciola hepatica infection: a review of recent literature. Trop Dis Bull 87:R1–R38Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Esteban JG, Gonzalez C, Curtale F et al (2003) Hyperendemic fascioliasis associated with schistosomiasis in villages of the Nile Delta, Egypt. Am J Trop Med Hyg 69:429–437PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Esteban JG, Flores A, Angles R et al (1999) High endemicity of human fascioliasis between Lake Titicaca and La Paz valley, Bolivia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 93:151–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Traversa D, Lorruso V, Otranto D (2013) Dicrocoelium. In: Liu D (ed) Molecular detection of foodborne pathogens. CRC, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Sugiyama H, Sing TS, Rangsiruji A (2013) Paragonimus. In: Liu D (ed) Molecular detection of foodborne pathogens. CRC, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Wang W, Blair D, Min T et al (2011) Paragonimus worm from a New Guinea native in 1926. Asian Pac J Trop Med 4:76–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Keiser J, Utzinger J (2009) Food-borne trematodiases. Clin Microbiol Rev 22:466–483PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Miyazaki I (1991) An illustrated book of helminthic zoonoses. International Medical Foundation of Japan, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Owen IL (2005) Parasitic zoonoses in Papua New Guinea. J Helminthol 79:1–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Fried B, Abruzzi A (2010) Food-borne trematode infections of humans in the United States of America. Parasitol Res 106:1263–1280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Procop GW (2009) North American paragonimiasis (caused by Paragonimus kellicotti) in the context of global paragonimiasis. Clin Microbiol Rev 22:415–446PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Blair D, Agatsuma T, Wang W (2007) Paragonimiasis. In: Murrell KD, Fried B (eds) Food-borne parasitic zoonoses: fish and plant-borne parasites, world class parasites. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Blair D, Xu ZB, Agatsuma T (1999) Paragonimiasis and the genus Paragonimus. Adv Parasitol 42:113–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Choi DW (1990) Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Korea. Korean J Parasitol 28:S79–S102Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kim DC (1984) Paragonimus westermani: life cycle, intermediate hosts, transmission to man and geographical distribution in Korea. Arzneimittelforschung 34:1180–1183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Nakamura-Uchiyama F, Mukae H, Nawa Y (2002) Paragonimiasis: a Japanese perspective. Clin Chest Med 23:409–420PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Miyazaki I, Habe S (1975) A newly recognized mode of infection with the lung fluke. Risho to Kenkyu 52:3606–3609 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Shibahara T, Nishida H, Torii M et al (1992) Experimental infection of wild boars with metacercariae of Paragonimus miyazakii (Trematoda: Troglotrematidae). Jpn J Parasitol 41:274–278Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Boland JM, Vaszar LT, Jones JL et al (2011) Pleuropulmonary infection by Paragonimus westermani in the United States: a rare cause of eosinophilic pneumonia after ingestion of live crabs. Am J Surg Pathol 35:707–713PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Lee MK, Hong SJ, Kim HR (2010) Seroprevalence of tissue invading parasitic infections diagnosed by ELISA in Korea. J Korean Med Sci 25:1272–1276PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Yokogawa S, Cort WW, Yokogawa M (1960) Paragonimus and paragonimiasis. Exp Parasitol 10:81–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Yokogawa M (1965) Paragonimus and paragonimiasis. Adv Parasitol 3:99–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    De NV (2004) Epidemiology, pathology and treatment of paragonimiasis in Vietnam. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 35:331–336Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Singh TS, Sugiyama H, Unchara A et al (2009) Paragonimus heterotremus infection in Nagaland: a new focus of paragonimiasis in India. Indian J Med Microbiol 27:123–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Iwagami M, Rajapakse RPV, Yatawara L et al (2009) The first intermediate host of Paragonimus westermani in Sri Lanka. Acta Trop 109:27–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Devi KR, Narain K, Bhattacharya S et al (2007) Pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis due to Paragonimus heterotremus: molecular diagnosis, prevalence of infection and clinicoradiological features in an endemic area of northeastern India. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 101:786–792PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Chen HT (1962) The etiologic agent of human paragonimiasis in China. Chin Med J 81:345–353Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Blair D, Chang Z, Chen M et al (2005) Paragonimus skrjabini Chen, 1959 (Digenea: Paragonimidae) and related species in eastern Asia: a combined molecular and morphological approach to identification and taxonomy. Syst Parasitol 60:1–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Singh ST, Singh DL, Sugiyama H (2006) Possible discovery of Chinese lung fluke, Paragonimus skrjabini in Manipur, India. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 37:S53–S56Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Kamo H, Nishida H, Hatsushika R et al (1961) On the occurrence of a new lung fluke, Paragonimus miyazakii n. sp. in Japan (Trematoda: Troglotrematidae). Yonago Acta Med 5:43–52Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Yokogawa M, Araki K, Saito K et al (1974) Paragonimus miyazakii infections in man first found in Kanto District, Japan especially, on the methods of immunosero-diagnosis for paragonimiasis. Jpn J Parasitol 23:167–179Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Li Q, Wei F, Liu W et al (2008) Paragonimiasis: an important food-borne zoonosis in China. Trends Parasitol 24:318–323Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Zhang XL, Wang Y, Wang GX et al (2012) Distribution and clinical features of Paragonimus skrjabini in three Gorges Reservoir region. Parasitol Int 61:645–649PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Uchiyama F, Morimoto Y, Nawa Y (1999) Re-emergence of paragonimiasis in Kyushu, Japan. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 30:686–691PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Mariano EG, Borja SB, Vruno MJ (1986) A human infection with Paragonimus kellicotti (lung fluke) in the Unites States. Am J Clin Pathol 86:685–687PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2010) Human paragonimiasis after eating raw or undercooked crayfish-Missouri, July 2006-September 2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 59:1573–1576Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Lane MA, Macros LA, Onen NF et al (2012) Paragonimus kellicotti fluke infections in Missouri, USA. Emerg Infect Dis 18:1263–1267PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Lane MA, Barsanti MC, Santos CA et al (2009) Human paragonimiasis in North America following ingestion of raw crayfish. Clin Infect Dis 49:e55–e61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Tongu Y (2001) The species of Paragonimus in Latin America. Bull Fac Health Sci Okayama Univ Med Sch 12:1–5Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Miyazaki I, Ishii Y (1968) Studies on the Mexican lung flukes, with special reference to a description of Paragonimus mexicanus sp. nov. (Trematoda: Troglotrematidae). Jpn J Parasitol 17:445–453Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    López-Caballero J, Oceguera-Figueroa A, León-Règagnon V (2013) Detection of multiple species of human Paragonimus from Mexico using morphological data and molecular barcodes. Mol Ecol Resour 13(6):1125–1136. doi: 10.1111/1755-0998.12093 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Velez I, Velasquez LE, Velez ID (2003) Morphological description and life cycle of Paragonimus sp. (Trematoda: Troglotrematidae): causal agent of human paragonimiasis in Colombia. J Parasitol 89:749–755PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Lemos ACM, Coelho JC, Matos ED et al (2007) Paragonimiasis: first case report in Brazil. Braz J Inf Dis 11:1–5Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Aka NA, Adoubryn K, Rondelaud D et al (2008) Human paragonimiasis in Africa. Ann Afr Med 7:153–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Sacks R, Albiez EJ, Voelke J (1986) Prevalence of Paragonimus uterobilaterialis infection in children in a Liberian village. Trans R Soc Tropical Med Hyg 80:800–801Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Nkouawa A, Okamoto M, Mabou AK et al (2009) Paragonimiasis in Cameroon: molecular identification, serodiagnosis and clinical manifestations. Trans R Soc Tropical Med Hyg 103:255–261Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Moyou-Somo R, Kefie-Arrey C, Dreyfuss G et al (2003) An epidemiological study of pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis among pupils in the peri-urban zone of Kumba town, Meme Division, Cameroon. BMC Public Health 3:40PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Ibanga ES, Eyo VM (2001) Pulmonary paragonimiasis in Oben community in Akamkpa local government area, Cross River State, Nigeria: prevalence and intensity of infection. Trans R Soc Tropical Med Hyg 95:159–160Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Chai JY, Shin EH, Lee SH et al (2009) Foodborne intestinal flukes in Southeast Asia. Korean J Parasitol 47:S69–S102PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Yu JR, Chai Y (2013) Metagonimus. In: Liu D (ed) Molecular detection of foodborne pathogens. CRC, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Huh S, Sohn WM, Chai JY (1993) Intestinal parasites of cats purchased in Seoul. Korean J Parasitol 31:371–373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Sohn WM, Chai JY (2005) Infection status with helminthes in feral cats purchased from a market in Busan, Republic of Korea. Korean J Parasitol 43:93–100PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Chai JY, Lee SH (2002) Food-borne intestinal trematode infections in the Republic of Korea. Parasitol Int 51:129–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Chai JY, Han ET, Park YK et al (2000) High endemicity of Metagonimus yokogawai infection among residents of Samchok-shi, Kangwon-do. Korean J Parasitol 38:33–36PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Kim TS, Cho SH, Huh S et al (2009) A nationwide survey on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in the republic of Korea. Korean J Parasitol 47:37–47PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Kagei N (1965) Epidemiological studies of metagonimiasis in Japan. I. Epidemological survey of metagonimiasis among the Takatsu River, Shimane Prefecture. Bull Inst Public Health Japan 14:213–227 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Ito J, Mochizuki H, Ohno Y et al (1991) On the prevalence of Metagonimus sp. among the inhabitants at Hamamatsu basin in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. Jpn J Parasitol 40:274–278Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Li MH (2013) Metagonimus yokogawai: metacercariae survey in fishes and its development to adult worms in various rodents. Parasitol Res 112(4):1647–1653. doi: 10.1007/s00436-013-3320-8 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Yu SH, Mott KE (1994) Epidemiology and morbidity of food-borne intestinal trematode infections. Trop Dis Bull 91:R125–R152Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Ito J (1964) Metagonimus and other human heterophyid trematodes. Prog Med Parasitol Japan 1:314–393Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Urabe M (2003) Trematode fauna of prosobranch snails of the genus Semisulcospira in Lake Biwa and the connected drainage system. Parasitol Int 52:21–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Ahn YK, Ryang YS (1988) Epidemiological studies on Metagonimus infection along the Hongcheon river, Kangwon Province. Korean J Parasitol 26:207–213 (in Korean)Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Chai JY, Huh S, Yu JR et al (1993) An epidemiological study of metagonimiasis along the upper reaches of the Namhan River. Korean J Parasitol 31:99–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Saito S, Chai JY, Kim KH et al (1997) Metagonimus miyatai sp. nov. (Digenea: Heterophyidae), a new intestinal trematode transmitted by freshwater fishes in Japan and Korea. Korean J Parasitol 35:223–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Shimazu T (2002) Life cycle and morphology of Metagonimus miyatai (Digenea: Heterophyidae) from Nagano, Japan. Parasitol Int 51:271–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Kino H, Suzuki T, Oishi H et al (2006) Geographical distribution of Metagonimus yokogawai and M. miyatai in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan, and their site preferences in the sweetfish, Plecoglossus altivelis, and hamsters. Parasitol Int 55:201–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Chai JY, Cho SY, Seo BS (1977) Study on Metagonimus yokogawai (Katsurada, 1912) in Korea. IV. An epidemiological investigation along Tamjin River Basin, South Cholla Do, Korea. Korean J Parasitol 15:115–120Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Guk SM, Shin EH, Kim JL et al (2007) A survey of Heterophyes nocens and Pygidiopsis summa metacercariae in mullets and gobies along the coastal areas of the Republic of Korea. Korean J Parasitol 45:205–211PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Chai JY, Na BK, Sohn WM (2013) Trematodes recovered in the small intestine of stray cats in the Republic of Korea. Korean J Parasitol 51:99–106PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Chai JY, Park JH, Han ET et al (2004) Prevalence of Heterophyes nocens and Pygidiopsis summa infections among residents of the western and southern coastal islands of the Republic of Korea. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71:617–622PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Kino H, Oishi H, Ohno Y et al (2002) An endemic human infection with Heterophyes nocens Onji et Nishio, 1916 at Mikkabi-cho, Shizuoka, Japan. Jpn J Trop Med Hyg 30:301–304Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Chai JY, Seo BS, Lee SH et al (1986) Human infections by Heterophyes heterophyes and H. dispar imported from Saudi Arabia. Korean J Parasitol 24:82–88Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Africa CM, de Leon W, Garcia EY (1940) Visceral complications in intestinal heterophyidiasis of man. Acta Med Philipp 1:1–132Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Chai JY, Yong TS, Eom KS et al (2013) Hyperendemicity of Haplorchis taichui infection among riparisn people in Saravane and Champasak Province, Lao PDR. Korean J Parasitol 51:305–311PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Radomyos P, Bunnag D, Harinasuta T (1983) Haplorchis pumilio (Looss) infection in man in northeastern Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 14:223–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Chung OS, Lee HJ, Kim YM et al (2011) First report of human infection with Gynaecotyla squatarolae and first Korean record of Haplorchis pumilio in a patient. Parasitol Int 60:227–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Chen HT (1942) The metacercaria and adult of Centrocestus formosanus (Nishigori, 1924), with notes on the natural infection of rats and cats with C. armatus (Tanabe, 1922). J Parasitol 28:285–298Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Waikagul J, Wongsaroj T, Radomyos P et al (1997) Human infection of Centrocestus caninus in Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 28:831–835PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Chai JY, Sohn WM, Yong TS et al (2013) Centrocestus formosanus (Heterophyidae): human infections and the infection source in Lao PDR. J Parasitol 99:531–536PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Hong SJ, Seo BS, Lee SH et al (1988) A human case of Centrocestus armatus infection in Korea. Korean J Parasitol 26:55–60Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Seo BS, Hong ST, Chai JY (1981) Studies on intestinal trematodes in Korea III. Natural human infection of Pygidiopsis summa and Heterophyes heterophyes nocens. Seoul J Med 22:228–235Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Chai JY, Hong SJ, Lee SH et al (1988) Stictodora sp. (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) recovered from a man in Korea. Korean J Parasitol 26:127–132Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Sohn WM, Han GG, Kho WG et al (1994) Infection status with the metacercariae of heterophyid flukes in the brackish water fish from Haenam-gun, Chollanam-do, Korea. Korean J Parasitol 32:163–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Chai JY, Park SK, Hong SJ et al (1989) Identification of Stictodora lari (Heterophyidae) metacercariae encysted in the brackish water fish, Acanthogobius flavimanus. Korean J Parasitol 27:253–259Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Chai JY, Han ET, Park YK et al (2002) Stictodora lari (Digenea: Heterophyidae): the discovery of the first human infections. J Parasitol 88:627–629PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Howell MJ (1973) The resistance of cysts of Stictodora lari (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) to encapsulation by cells of the fish host. Int J Parasitol 3:653–659PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Kanev I (1994) Life-cycle, delimitation and redescription of Echinostoma revolutum (Froelich, 1982) (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae). Syst Parasitol 28:125–144Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Sohn WM, Chai JY, Yong TS et al (2011) Echinostoma revolutum infection in children, Pursat Province, Cambodia. Emerg Infect Dis 17:117–119PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Chai JY, Sohn WM, Yong TS et al (2012) Echinostome flukes recovered from humans in Khammouane Province, Lao PDR. Korean J Parasitol 50:269–272PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Chai JY, Sohn WM, Na BK et al (2011) Echinostoma revolutum: metacercariae in Filopaludina snails from Nam Dihn Province, Vietnam, and adults from experimental hamsters. Korean J Parasitol 49:449–455PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Chantima K, Chai JY, Wongsawad C (2013) Echinostoma revolutum: freshwater snails as the second intermediate hosts in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Korean J Parasitol 51:183–189PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Fried B, Graczyk TK (2004) Recent advances in the biology of Echinostoma species in the ‘revolutum’ group. Adv Parasitol 58:139–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Rim HJ (1982) Echinostomiasis. In: Steele JH (ed) CRC handbook series in zoonoses, Section C: Parasitic zoonoses, vol III, Trematode zoonoses. CRC, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Lee SH, Lee JK, Sohn WM et al (1988) Metacercariae of Echinostoma cinetorchis encysted in the fresh water snail, Hippeutis (Helicorbis) cantori, and their development in rats and mice. Korean J Parasitol 26:189–197Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Seo BS, Chun KS, Chai JY et al (1985) Studies on intestinal trematodes in Korea XVII. Development and egg laying capacity of Echinostoma hortense in albino rats and human experimental infection. Korean J Parasitol 23:24–32Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Sohn WM, Kim HJ, Yong TS et al (2011) Echinostoma ilocanum infection in Oddar Meanchey Province, Cambodia. Korean J Parasitol 49:187–190PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Chai JY, Hong SJ, Son DW et al (1985) Metacercariae of the Echinochasmus japonicus encysted in a fresh water fish, Pseudorasbora parva, and their development in experimental mice. Korean J Parasitol 23:221–229Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Choi MH, Kim SH, Chung JH et al (2006) Morphological observations of Echinochasmus japonicus cercariae and the in vitro maintenance of its life cycle from cercariae to adults. J Parasitol 92:236–241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Xiao X, Wang T, Zheng X et al (2005) In vivo and in vitro encystment of Echinochasmus liliputanus cercariae and biological activity of the metacercariae. J Parasitol 91:492–498PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Liang C, Ke XL (1988) Echinochasmus jiufoensis sp. nov., a human parasite from Guangzhou (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae). Acta Zootax Sin 13:4–8Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Bandyopadhyay AK, Manna B, Nandy A (1989) Human infection of Artyfechinostomum oraoni n. sp. (Paryphostominae: Echinostomatidae) in a tribal community, “Oraons” in West Bengal, India. Indian J Parasitol 13:191–196Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Bandyopadhyay AK, Maji AK, Manna B et al (1995) Pathogenicity of Artyfechinostomum oraoni in naturally infected pigs. Trop Med Parasitol 46:138–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Maji AK, Manna B, Bandyopadhyay AK et al (1995) Studies on the life cycle of Artyfechinostomum oraoni Bandyopadhyay, Manna & Nandy, 1989: embryogenesis and development in the intermediate host. Indian J Med Res 102:124–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Kim YK, Yu JE, Chung EY et al (2004) Acanthoparyphium tyosenense (Digenea: Echinostomatidae): experimental confirmation of the cercaria and its complete life history in Korea. J Parasitol 90:97–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Chai JY, Han ET, Park YK et al (2001) Acanthoparyphium tyosenense: the discovery of human infection and identification of its source. J Parasitol 87:794–800PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Sohn WM (1998) Life history of Echinoparyphium recurvatum (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) in Korea. Korean J Parasitol 36:91–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Yokogawa M, Harinasuta C, Charoenlarp P (1965) Hypoderaeum conoideum (Block, 1782) Dietz, 1909, a common intestinal fluke of man in the north-east Thailand. Jpn J Parasitol 14:148–153Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Tandon V, Roy B, Prasad PK (2013) Fasciolopsis. In: Liu D (ed) Molecular detection of foodborne pathogens. CRC, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Lee SH, Chai JY, Hong ST (1993) Gymnophalloides seoi n. sp. (Digenea: Gymnophallidae), the first report of human infection by a gymnophallid. J Parasitol 79:677–680PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Chai JY, Choi MH, Yu JR et al (2003) Gymnophalloides seoi: a new human intestinal trematode. Trends Parasitol 19:109–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Ryang YS, Yoo JC, Lee SH et al (2000) The Palearctic oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus, a natural definitive host for Gymnophalloides seoi. J Parasitol 86:418–419PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Shin EH, Park JH, Guk SM et al (2009) Intestinal helminth infections in feral cats and a raccoon dog on Aphaedo Island, Shinan-gun, with a special note on Gymnophalloides seoi infection in cats. Korean J Parasitol 47:189–191PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Ryang YS, Yoo JC, Lee SH et al (2001) Susceptibility of avian hosts to experimental Gymnophalloides seoi infection. J Parasitol 87:454–456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Lee SH, Park SK, Seo M et al (1997) Susceptibility of various animals and strains of mice to Gymnophalloides seoi infection and the effects of immunosuppression in C3H/HeN mice. J Parasitol 83:883–886PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Yamaguti S (1971) Synopsis of digenetic trematodes of vertebrates, vol I & II. Keigaku, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Lee HJ, Chai JY, Lee JW et al (2010) Surveys of Gynaecotyla squatarolae and Microphallus koreana (Digenea: Microphallidae) metacercariae in two species of estuarine crabs in western coastal areas, Korea. Korean J Parasitol 48:81–83PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Seo M, Guk SM, Lee SH et al (2007) Gynaecotyla squatarolae (Digenea: Microphallidae) from rats experimentally infected with metacercariae from the shore crab, Macrophthalmus dilatatus. Korean J Parasitol 45:199–204PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Seo BS (1990) Fibricola seoulensis Seo, Rim and Lee, 1964 (Trematoda) and fibricoliasis in man. Seoul J Med 31:61–96Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Hong ST, Cho TK, Hong SJ et al (1984) Fifteen human cases of Fibricola seoulensis infection in Korea. Korean J Parasitol 22:61–65Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Manning GS, Diggs CL, Viyanant V et al (1951) Preliminary report on Phaneropsolus bonnei Lie Kian Joe, 1951. A newly discovered human intestinal fluke from northeastern Thailand. J Med Assoc Thai 53:173–178Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Manning GS, Lertprasert P (1973) Studies on the life cycle of Phaneropsolus bonnei and Prosthodendrium molenkampi in Thailand. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 67:361–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Hong SJ, Woo HC, Chai JY (1996) A human case of Plagiorchis muris (Tanabe, 1922: Digenea) infection in the Republic of Korea: Freshwater fish as a possible source of infection. J Parasitol 82:647–649PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Radomyos P, Bunnag D, Harinasuta C (1989) A new intestinal fluke, Plagiorchis harinasutai, n. sp. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 20:101–107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Guk SM, Kim JL, Park JH et al (2007) A human case of Plagiorchis vespertilionis (Digenea: Plagiorchiidae) infection in the Republic of Korea. J Parasitol 93:1225–1227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Macy RW (1960) The life cycle of Plagiorchis vespertilionis parorchis n. ssp., (Trematoda: Plagiorchidae), and observations on the effects of light on the emergence of the cercaria. J Parasitol 46:337–345PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine, College of MedicineSeoul National UniversitySeoulSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations