Ayurvedic and Other Antioxidant Mimics

  • Samir Malhotra
  • Amritpal Singh
Part of the Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice book series (OXISTRESS)


Antioxidants inhibit oxidation of other substances generally by removing potentially damaging oxidizing agents in a living organism, thereby decreasing free radical-induced damage. Antioxidant supplements remain popular in spite of the fact that most of the recent scientific evidence has been unfavorable. In this chapter, we will objectively review the current status and future implications of some of the Ayurvedic and other herbal antioxidants. We also briefly discuss some of the challenges associated with this issue and how they could be overcome.


Antioxidant Effect Ellagic Acid Ursolic Acid Rosmarinic Acid Antioxidant Supplement 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Nichter M, Thompson JJ (2006) For my wellness, not just my illness: North Americans’ use of dietary supplements. Cult Med Psychiatry 30:175–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Millen AE, Dodd KW, Subar AF (2004) Use of vitamin, mineral, nonvitamin, and nonmineral supplements in the United States: the 1987, 1992, and 2000 National Health Interview Survey results. J Am Diet Assoc 104:942–950PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Willcox JK, Ash SL, Catignani GL (2004) Antioxidants and prevention of chronic disease. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 44:275–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ames BN, Shigenaga MK, Hagen TM (1993) Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90:7915–7922PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
  6. 6.
    Albanes D, Heinonen OP, Huttunen JK, Taylor PR, Virtamo J, Edwards BK et al (1995) Effects of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplements on cancer incidence in the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Am J Clin Nutr 62:1427–1430Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bansal D, Bhalla A, Bhasin DK, Pandhi P, Sharma N, Rana S, Malhotra S (2011) Safety and efficacy of vitamin-based antioxidant therapy in patients with severe acute pancreatitis: a randomized controlled trial. Saudi J Gastroenterol 17:174–179PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Malhotra S, Bhatia GS, Pandhi P (2001) Patterns of use of unconventional therapies in the medical outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital in India. J Ethnopharmacol 75:71–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shafiq N, Gupta M, Kumari S, Pandhi P (2003) Prevalence and pattern of use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in hypertensive patients of a tertiary care center in India. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 41:294–298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shukla SD, Bhatnagar M, Khurana S (2012) Critical evaluation of Ayurvedic plants for stimulating intrinsic antioxidant response. Front Neurosci 6:112PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Scartezzini P, Speroni E (2000) Review on some plants of Indian traditional medicine with antioxidant activity. J Ethnopharmacol 71:23–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Govindarajan R, Vijayakumar M, Pushpangadan P (2005) Antioxidant approach to disease management and the role of ‘Rasayana’ herbs of Ayurveda. J Ethnopharmacol 99:165–178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cai Y, Luo Q, Sun M, Corke H (2004) Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of 112 traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer. Life Sci 74:2157–2184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kelm MA, Nair MG, Strasburg GM, DeWitt DL (2000) Antioxidant and cyclooxygenase inhibitory phenolic compounds from Ocimum sanctum Linn. Phytomedicine 7:7–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Balanehru S, Nagarajan B (1991) Protective effect of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid against lipid peroxidation. Biochem Int 24:981–990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Devi PU, Bisht KS, Vinitha M (1998) A comparative study of radioprotection by Ocimum flavonoids and synthetic aminothiol protectors in the mouse. Br J Radiol 71:782–784PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shyamala AC, Devaki T (1996) Studies on peroxidation in rats ingesting copper sulphate and effect of subsequent treatment with Ocimum sanctum. J Clin Biochem Nutr 20:113–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Banerjee S, Prashar R, Kumar A, Rao AR (1996) Modulatory influence of alcoholic extract of Ocimum leaves on carcinogen-metabolizing enzyme activities and reduced glutathione levels in mouse. Nutr Cancer 25:205–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Prakash J, Gupta SK (2000) Chemopreventive activity of Ocimum sanctum seed oil. J Ethnopharmacol 72:29–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rajakrishnan V, Viswanathan P, Rajasekharan KN, Menon VP (1999) Neuroprotective role of curcumin from Curcuma longa on ethanol-induced brain damage. Phytother Res 13:571–574PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rao MNA (1994) Curcuminoids as potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation. J Pharm Pharmacol 46:1013–1016PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nakayama R, Tamura Y, Yamanaka H, Kikuzaki H, Nakatani N (1993) Two curcuminoid pigments from Curcuma domestica. Phytochemistry 33:501–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Roth GN, Chandra A, Nair MG (1998) Novel bioactivities of Curcuma longa constituents. J Nat Prod 61:542–545PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rege A, Juvekar P, Juvekar A (2012) In vitro antioxidant and anti-arthritic activities of Shilajit. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 4:650–653Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ghosal S, Lata S, Kumar Y, Gaur B, Misra N (1995) Interaction of Shilajit with biogenic free radicals. Indian J Chem 34B:596–602Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tripathi YB, Shukla S, Chaurasia S, Chuturvedi S (1996) Antilipid peroxidative property of Shilajit. Phytother Res 10:269–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bhattacharya SK, Satyan KS, Chakrabarti A (1997) Effect of Trasina, an Ayurvedic herbal formulation, on pancreatic islet superoxide dismutase activity in hyperglycaemic rats. Indian J Exp Biol 35:297–299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Raghavan B, Kumari SK (2006) Effect of Terminalia arjuna stem bark on antioxidant status in liver and kidney of alloxan diabetic rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 50:133–142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sivalokanathan S, Ilayaraja M, Balasubramanian MP (2006) Antioxidant activity of Terminalia arjuna bark extract on N-nitrosodiethylamine induced hepatocellular carcinoma in rats. Mol Cell Biochem 281:87–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Saha A, Pawar VM, Jayaraman S (2012) Characterization of polyphenols in Terminalia arjuna bark extract. Indian J Pharm Sci 74:339–347PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Naik GH, Priyadarsini KI, Bhagirathi RG, Mishra B, Mishra KP, Banavalikar MM, Mohan H (2005) In vitro antioxidant studies and free radical reactions of triphala, an ayurvedic formulation and its constituents. Phytother Res 19:582–586PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Vani T (1997) Antioxidant properties of the Ayurvedic formulation Triphala and its constituents. Int J Pharmacog 35:313–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mitra A, Chakraborty S, Auddy B, Tripathi P, Sen S, Saha AV, Mukherjee B (2002) Evaluation of chemical constituents and free radical scavenging activity of Swarnabhasma (gold ash), an Ayurvedic drug. J Ethnopharmacol 80:147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shah ZA, Vohora SB (2002) Antioxidant/restorative effects calcined gold preparations used in Indian systems of medicine against global and focal models of ischaemia. Pharmacol Toxicol 90:254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Onkar P, Bangar J, Karodi R (2012) Evaluation of Antioxidant activity of traditional formulation Giloysatva and hydroalcoholic extract of the Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. J Appl Pharm Sci 2:209–213Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sabu MC, Kuttan R (2009) Antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of Terminalia belerica. Roxb. Indian J Exp Biol 47:270–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Amresh G, Rao CV, Singh PN (2007) Antioxidant activity of Cissampelos pareira on benzo(a)pyrene-induced mucosal injury in mice. Nutr Res 27:625–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tripathi YB, Chaurasia S, Tripathi E, Upadhyay A, Dubey GP (1996) Bacopa monniera Linn. as an antioxidant: mechanism of action. Indian J Exp Biol 34:523–526PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Nag G, De B (2008) Antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory properties of the Indian medicinal plant “Shankhapushpi” used for enhancing memory function. J Complement Integr Med 5:1553–3840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bihari SW, Singh AP, Tiwari M (2011) In vivo investigation of the neuroprotective property of Convolvulus pluricaulis in scopolamine-induced cognitive impairments in Wistar rats. Indian J Pharmacol 43:520–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Deshpande SM, Srivastava DN (1969) Chemical studies of Convulvulus pluricaulis. J Indian Chem Soc 46:759–760Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Deshpande SM, Srivastava DN (1975) Gas chromatographic identification of fatty acids, fatty alcohols, and hydrocarbons of Convolvulus pluricaulis (Chois). J Am Oil Chem Soc 52: 318–319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Singh GK, Bhandari A (2000) Text book of pharmacognosy. CBS, New Delhi, pp 193–194Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Rajasekharan S, Sivagnanam K, Subramaniam S (2005) Antioxidant effect of Aloe vera gel extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Pharmacol Rep 57:90–96Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Singh RP, Dhanlaksmi S, Rao AR (2000) Chemomodulatory action of Aloe vera gel on the profile of enzymes associated with carcinogenic metabolism and antioxidant status regulation in mice. Phytomedicine 7:209–219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gindi S (2011) Evaluation of nootropic potential and in vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of roots of Aparagus racemosus in rats. Int J Pharm Res Dev 3:184–191Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Parihar MS, Hemnani T (2004) Experimental excitotoxicity provokes oxidative damage in mice brain and attenuation by extract of Asparagus racemosus. J Neural Transm 111:1–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Vimal S, Sissodia SS, Meena P et al (2010) Antioxidant effects of Asparagus racemosus Wild and Withania somnifera Dunal in rat brain. Ann Neurosci 12:67–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Bopana N, Saxena S (2007) Asparagus racemosus—ethnopharmacological evaluation and conservation needs. J Ethnopharmacol 110:1–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Vijayakumar RS, Surya D, Nalini N (2004) Antioxidant efficacy of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and piperine in rats with high fat diet induced oxidative stress. Redox Rep 9: 105–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Godkar PB, Gordon RK, Ravindran A, Doctor BP (2006) Celastrus paniculatus seed oil and organic extracts attenuate hydrogen peroxide- and glutamate-induced injury in embryonic rat forebrain neuronal cells. Phytomedicine 13:29–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Shukla PK, Khanna VK, Ali MM et al (2002) Protective effect of Acorus calamus against acrylamide induced neurotoxicity. Phytother Res 16:256–260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Manikandan S, Srikumar R, Parthasarathy JN, Devi RS (2005) Protective effect of Acorus calamus Linn. on free radical scavengers and lipid peroxidation in discrete regions of brain against noise stress exposed rat. Biol Pharm Bull 28:2327–2330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Zanoli P, Avallone R, Baraldi M (1998) Sedative and hypothermic effects induced by β-asarone, a main component of Acorus calamus. Phytother Res 12:S114–S116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Singh I, Singh PK, Bhansali S, Shafiq N, Malhotra S, Pandhi P, Singh AP (2010) Effects of three different doses of a fruit extract of Terminalia chebula on metabolic components of metabolic syndrome, in a rat model. Phytother Res 24:107–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Bhansali S, Shafiq N, Pandhi P, Singh AP, Singh I, Singh PK, Sharma S, Malhotra S (2013) Effect of a deacylgymnemic acid on glucose homeostasis and metabolic parameters in a rat model of metabolic syndrome. Indian J Med Res 137:1174–1179PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Sidhu S, Pandhi P, Malhotra S, Vaiphei K, Khanduja KL (2011) Beneficial effects of Emblica officinalis in l-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis in rats. J Med Food 14:147–155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Anand P, Kunnumakkara AB, Newman RA, Aggarwal BB (2007) Bioavailability of curcumin: problems and promises. Mol Pharm 4:807–818PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Karan RS, Bhargava VK, Garg SK (1999) Effect of trikatu, an Ayurvedic prescription, on the pharmacokinetic profile of rifampicin in rabbits. J Ethnopharmacol 64:259–264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PharmacologyPostgraduate Institute of Medical Education and ResearchChandigarhIndia
  2. 2.Ayurvedic ConsultantMohaliIndia
  3. 3.Formerly at Ayurvedic CollegeChandigarhIndia

Personalised recommendations