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Cardiac Alterations in Aging, Hypertension, and Diastolic Heart Failure

  • Edith Pituskin
  • D. Ian Paterson
Chapter

Abstract

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death globally, with an estimated 17.3 million people dying of CVDs in 2008. Age is a major independent risk factor of CVD, in part due to progressive exposure to a variety of insults including smoking, obesity, hypertension (HTN), and chronic diseases. Population studies on aging demonstrate linear increases in systolic blood pressure throughout each decade of life. HTN is the most commonly identified modifiable risk factor in CVD and most notably is present in 74 % of patients with heart failure (HF). Importantly, age-adjusted incidence of HF has not declined substantially in the past 20–30 years, in spite of improvements in control of causal factors. Diastolic heart failure (DHF) is now understood to account for more than 50 % of HF cases in the elderly with outcomes equally dismal as those with systolic heart failure. Only recently has the interaction of CVD and physiologic effects of aging attracted attention; therefore, many aspects are yet to be elucidated. The aim of this chapter is to review key micro- and macroscopic cardiac alterations associated with aging, hypertension, and DHF and discuss fundamental treatment strategies.

Keywords

Diastolic Dysfunction Diastolic Function Left Ventricular Mass Myocardial Fibrosis Systolic Heart Failure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

BP

Blood pressure

CVD

Cardiovascular disease

DHF

Diastolic heart failure

HF

Heart failure

HTN

Hypertension

LV

Left ventricle

MMPs

Matrix metalloproteinases

PICP

Procollagen type 1 carboxyl-terminal propeptide

PIIICP PIIINP

Carboxy-terminal and amino-terminal peptides of collagen type III

TIMPs

Tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SHF

Systolic heart failure

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OncologyUniversity of Alberta, Cross Cancer InstituteEdmontonCanada
  2. 2.Department of Cardiology/Medicine, Mazankowski Alberta Heart InstituteUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

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