Adipokines as Novel Biomarkers in Aging and Heart Failure

  • Ken ShinmuraEmail author


Adipokines represent a family of proteins produced in adipose tissue that affect various biological processes including metabolism, satiety, inflammation, and cardiovascular function. Adipocytes are the major cell type comprising adipose tissue. These cells secrete numerous factors, broadly termed adipokines, into the blood, including classic pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, acute phase proteins such as plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 and haptoglobin, and specific adipokines such as leptin, adiponectin, resistin, apelin, visfatin, lipocalin-2, omentin, chemerin, and vaspin. Since adipose tissue is highly vascularized, it is now recognized as an endocrine organ. Different adipose depots have distinct adipokine secretion profiles, which are altered in conditions of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. Indeed, adipokines including leptin, adiponectin, and apelin exert potent and diverse cardiovascular effects that are mediated by their specific receptors and involve multifaceted cell signaling pathways. Mounting evidence demonstrates that the circulating levels of these adipokines are closely associated with the development and/or progression of cardiovascular disease including heart failure. Thus, adipokines have received considerable attention because of their potential for novel biomarkers of cardiovascular disease including heart failure. In this chapter, we discuss the biological functions and potent cardiovascular effects of the 9 above-mentioned adipokines and, then, estimate the usefulness of measuring serum levels of each adipokine as a novel biomarker of heart failure, using information from both clinical and experimental investigations.


Heart Failure Brain Natriuretic Peptide White Adipose Tissue Adiponectin Level Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work was supported by a grant from the Ministry of Education, Culture, and Science, Japan (2010–2012), and by a grant from the Vehicle Racing Commemorative Foundation (2012).


  1. 1.
    Maury E, Brichard SM. Adipokine dysregulation, adipose tissue inflammation and metabolic syndrome. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;314:1–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Karmazyn M, Purdham DM, Rajapurohitam V, Zeidan A. Signalling mechanisms underlying the metabolic and other effects of adipokines on the heart. Cardiovasc Res. 2008;79:279–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sweeney G. Cardiovascular effects of leptin. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2010;7:22–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hintz KK, Aberle NS, Ren J. Insulin resistance induces hyperleptinemia, cardiac contractile dysfunction but not cardiac leptin resistance in ventricular myocytes. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003;27:1196–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mann DR, Johnson AO, Gimpel T, Castracane VD. Changes in circulating leptin, leptin receptor, and gonadal hormones from infancy until advanced age in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:3339–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Moller N, O'Brien P, Nair KS. Disruption of the relationship between fat content and leptin levels with aging in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998;83:931–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hubbard RE, O'Mahony MS, Calver BL, Woodhouse KW. Nutrition, inflammation, and leptin levels in aging and frailty. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2008;56:279–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lieb W, Sullivan LM, Harris TB, Roubenoff R, Benjamin EJ, Levy D, Fox CS, Wang TJ, Wilson PW, Kannel WB, Vasan RS. Plasma leptin levels and incidence of heart failure, cardiovascular disease, and total mortality in elderly individuals. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:612–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lehtonen A, Huupponen R, Tuomilehto J, Lavonius S, Arve S, Isoaho H, Huhtaniemi I, Tilvis R. Serum testosterone but not leptin predicts mortality in elderly men. Age Ageing. 2008;37:461–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wannamethee SG, Shaper AG, Whincup PH, Lennon L, Sattar N. Obesity and risk of incident heart failure in older men with and without pre-existing coronary heart disease: does leptin have a role? J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;58:1870–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Spies C, Farzaneh-Far R, Na B, Kanaya A, Schiller NB, Whooley MA. Relation of obesity to heart failure hospitalization and cardiovascular events in persons with stable coronary heart disease (from the Heart and Soul Study). Am J Cardiol. 2009;104:883–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schulze PC, Kratzsch J, Linke A, Schoene N, Adams V, Gielen S, Erbs S, Moebius-Winkler S, Schuler G. Elevated serum levels of leptin and soluble leptin receptor in patients with advanced chronic heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail. 2003;5:33–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bobbert P, Jenke A, Bobbert T, Kuhl U, Rauch U, Lassner D, Scheibenbogen C, Poller W, Schultheiss HP, Skurk C. High leptin and resistin expression in chronic heart failure: adverse outcome in patients with dilated and inflammatory cardiomyopathy. Eur J Heart Fail. 2012;14(11):1265–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    McGaffin KR, Moravec CS, McTiernan CF. Leptin signaling in the failing and mechanically unloaded human heart. Circ Heart Fail. 2009;2:676–83.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shibata R, Ouchi N, Murohara T. Adiponectin and cardiovascular disease. Circ J. 2009;73:608–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Simpson F, Whitehead JP. Adiponectin–it's all about the modifications. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2010;42:785–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shinmura K. Is adiponectin a bystander or a mediator in heart failure? The tangled thread of a good-natured adipokine in aging and cardiovascular disease. Heart Fail Rev. 2010;15:457–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Park M, Sweeney G. Direct effects of adipokines on the heart: focus on adiponectin. Heart Fail Rev. 2012;18(5):631–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Adamczak M, Rzepka E, Chudek J, Wiecek A. Ageing and plasma adiponectin concentration in apparently healthy males and females. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2005;62:114–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Isobe T, Saitoh S, Takagi S, Takeuchi H, Chiba Y, Katoh N, Shimamoto K. Influence of gender, age and renal function on plasma adiponectin level: the Tanno and Sobetsu study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2005;153:91–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wannamethee SG, Whincup PH, Lennon L, Sattar N. Circulating adiponectin levels and mortality in elderly men with and without cardiovascular disease and heart failure. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167:1510–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dekker JM, Funahashi T, Nijpels G, Pilz S, Stehouwer CD, Snijder MB, Bouter LM, Matsuzawa Y, Shimomura I, Heine RJ. Prognostic value of adiponectin for cardiovascular disease and mortality. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:1489–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Frystyk J, Berne C, Berglund L, Jensevik K, Flyvbjerg A, Zethelius B. Serum adiponectin is a predictor of coronary heart disease: a population-based 10-year follow-up study in elderly men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:571–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Laughlin GA, Barrett-Connor E, May S, Langenberg C. Association of adiponectin with coronary heart disease and mortality: the Rancho Bernardo study. Am J Epidemiol. 2007;165:164–74.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Maiolino G, Cesari M, Sticchi D, Zanchetta M, Pedon L, Antezza K, Pessina AC, Rossi GP. Plasma adiponectin for prediction of cardiovascular events and mortality in high-risk patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:3333–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Poehls J, Wassel CL, Harris TB, Havel PJ, Swarbrick MM, Cummings SR, Newman AB, Satterfield S, Kanaya AM. Association of adiponectin with mortality in older adults: the health, aging, and body composition study. Diabetologia. 2009;52:591–5.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kizer JR, Arnold AM, Jenny NS, Cushman M, Strotmeyer ES, Ives DG, Ding J, Kritchevsky SB, Chaves PH, Hirsch CH, Newman AB. Longitudinal changes in adiponectin and inflammatory markers and relation to survival in the oldest old: the Cardiovascular Health Study All Stars study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2011;66:1100–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kozakova M, Muscelli E, Flyvbjerg A, Frystyk J, Morizzo C, Palombo C, Ferrannini E. Adiponectin and left ventricular structure and function in healthy adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:2811–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ohara T, Kim J, Asakura M, Asanuma H, Nakatani S, Hashimura K, Kanzaki H, Funahashi T, Tomoike H, Kitakaze M. Plasma adiponectin is associated with plasma brain natriuretic peptide and cardiac function in healthy subjects. Hypertens Res. 2008;31:825–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    McManus DD, Lyass A, Ingelsson E, Massaro JM, Meigs JB, Aragam J, Benjamin EJ, Vasan RS. Relations of circulating resistin and adiponectin and cardiac structure and function: the framingham offspring study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011;20:1882–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bik W, Baranowska-Bik A, Wolinska-Witort E, Martynska L, Chmielowska M, Szybinska A, Broczek K, Baranowska B. The relationship between adiponectin levels and metabolic status in centenarian, early elderly, young and obese women. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2006;27:493–500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Atzmon G, Pollin TI, Crandall J, Tanner K, Schechter CB, Scherer PE, Rincon M, Siegel G, Katz M, Lipton RB, Shuldiner AR, Barzilai N. Adiponectin levels and genotype: a potential regulator of life span in humans. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2008;63:447–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Arai Y, Takayama M, Gondo Y, Inagaki H, Yamamura K, Nakazawa S, Kojima T, Ebihara Y, Shimizu K, Masui Y, Kitagawa K, Takebayashi T, Hirose N. Adipose endocrine function, insulin-like growth factor-1 axis, and exceptional survival beyond 100 years of age. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2008;63:1209–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Stenholm S, Metter EJ, Roth GS, Ingram DK, Mattison JA, Taub DD, Ferrucci L. Relationship between plasma ghrelin, insulin, leptin, interleukin 6, adiponectin, testosterone and longevity in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2011;23:153–8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kistorp C, Faber J, Galatius S, Gustafsson F, Frystyk J, Flyvbjerg A, Hildebrandt P. Plasma adiponectin, body mass index, and mortality in patients with chronic heart failure. Circulation. 2005;112:1756–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Haugen E, Furukawa Y, Isic A, Fu M. Increased adiponectin level in parallel with increased NT-pro BNP in patients with severe heart failure in the elderly: A hospital cohort study. Int J Cardiol. 2008;125:216–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ho YL, Lin YH, Lee CM, Hsu RB, Ting HT, Chou NK, Chao CL, Wang SS, Hsu HC, Chen MF. Prognostic significance of adipocytokines and extracellular matrix activity in heart failure patients with high B-type natriuretic peptide. Clin Biochem. 2009;42:1407–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Nakamura T, Funayama H, Kubo N, Yasu T, Kawakami M, Saito M, Momomura S, Ishikawa SE. Association of hyperadiponectinemia with severity of ventricular dysfunction in congestive heart failure. Circ J. 2006;70:1557–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Tamura T, Furukawa Y, Taniguchi R, Sato Y, Ono K, Horiuchi H, Nakagawa Y, Kita T, Kimura T. Serum adiponectin level as an independent predictor of mortality in patients with congestive heart failure. Circ J. 2007;71:623–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Tanaka T, Tsutamoto T, Nishiyama K, Sakai H, Fujii M, Yamamoto T, Horie M. Impact of oxidative stress on plasma adiponectin in patients with chronic heart failure. Circ J. 2008;72:563–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Tsutamoto T, Tanaka T, Sakai H, Ishikawa C, Fujii M, Yamamoto T, Horie M. Total and high molecular weight adiponectin, haemodynamics, and mortality in patients with chronic heart failure. Eur Heart J. 2007;28:1723–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    McEntegart MB, Awede B, Petrie MC, Sattar N, Dunn FG, MacFarlane NG, McMurray JJ. Increase in serum adiponectin concentration in patients with heart failure and cachexia: relationship with leptin, other cytokines, and B-type natriuretic peptide. Eur Heart J. 2007;28:829–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Masson S, Gori F, Latini R, Milani V, Flyvbjerg A, Frystyk J, Crociati L, Pietri S, Vago T, Barlera S, Maggioni AP, Tognoni G, Tavazzi L, Omland T, Franzosi MG. Adiponectin in chronic heart failure: influence of diabetes and genetic variants. Eur J Clin Invest. 2011;41:1330–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Yin WH, Wei J, Huang WP, Chen JW, Young MS, Lin SJ. Prognostic value of circulating adipokine levels and expressions of adipokines in the myocardium of patients with chronic heart failure. Circ J. 2012;76(9):2139–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Khan RS, Kato TS, Chokshi A, Chew M, Yu S, Wu C, Singh P, Cheema FH, Takayama H, Harris C, Reyes-Soffer G, Knoll R, Milting H, Naka Y, Mancini D, Schulze PC. Adipose tissue inflammation and adiponectin resistance in patients with advanced heart failure: correction after ventricular assist device implantation. Circ Heart Fail. 2012;5:340–8.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Schulze PC, Biolo A, Gopal D, Shahzad K, Balog J, Fish M, Siwik D, Colucci WS. Dynamics in insulin resistance and plasma levels of adipokines in patients with acute decompensated and chronic stable heart failure. J Card Fail. 2011;17:1004–11.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Tanaka T, Tsutamoto T, Sakai H, Nishiyama K, Fujii M, Yamamoto T, Horie M. Effect of atrial natriuretic peptide on adiponectin in patients with heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail. 2008;10:360–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Matsumoto M, Lee-Kawabata M, Tsujino T, Naito Y, Ezumi A, Sakoda T, Ohyanagi M, Shimomura I, Masuyama T. Decrease in serum adiponectin levels in response to treatment predicts good prognosis in acute decompensated heart failure. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2010;12:900–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ohara T, Hashimura K, Asakura M, Ogai A, Amaki M, Hasegawa T, Kanzaki H, Sonoda M, Nishizawa H, Funahashi T, Kitakaze M. Dynamic changes in plasma total and high molecular weight adiponectin levels in acute heart failure. J Cardiol. 2011;58:181–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Yamaji M, Tsutamoto T, Tanaka T, Kawahara C, Nishiyama K, Yamamoto T, Fujii M, Horie M. Effect of carvedilol on plasma adiponectin concentration in patients with chronic heart failure. Circ J. 2009;73:1067–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Biolo A, Shibata R, Ouchi N, Kihara S, Sonoda M, Walsh K, Sam F. Determinants of adiponectin levels in patients with chronic systolic heart failure. Am J Cardiol. 2010;105:1147–52.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Van Berendoncks AM, Beckers P, Hoymans VY, Possemiers N, Coenen S, Elseviers MM, Vrints CJ, Conraads VM. Beta-blockers modify the prognostic value of adiponectin in chronic heart failure. Int J Cardiol. 2011;150:296–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ingelsson E, Riserus U, Berne C, Frystyk J, Flyvbjerg A, Axelsson T, Lundmark P, Zethelius B. Adiponectin and risk of congestive heart failure. JAMA. 2006;295:1772–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Frankel DS, Vasan RS, D'Agostino Sr RB, Benjamin EJ, Levy D, Wang TJ, Meigs JB. Resistin, adiponectin, and risk of heart failure the Framingham offspring study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;53:754–62.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Djousse L, Wilk JB, Hanson NQ, Glynn RJ, Tsai MY. Gaziano JM. Association Between Adiponectin and Heart Failure Risk in the Physicians’ Health Study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013;21:831–4.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Schwartz DR, Lazar MA. Human resistin: found in translation from mouse to man. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2011;22:259–65.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Tomaru T, Steger DJ, Lefterova MI, Schupp M, Lazar MA. Adipocyte-specific expression of murine resistin is mediated by synergism between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:6116–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Osawa H, Tabara Y, Kawamoto R, Ohashi J, Ochi M, Onuma H, Nishida W, Yamada K, Nakura J, Kohara K, Miki T, Makino H. Plasma resistin, associated with single nucleotide polymorphism -420, is correlated with insulin resistance, lower HDL cholesterol, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in the Japanese general population. Diabetes Care. 2007;30:1501–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Takeishi Y, Niizeki T, Arimoto T, Nozaki N, Hirono O, Nitobe J, Watanabe T, Takabatake N, Kubota I. Serum resistin is associated with high risk in patients with congestive heart failure–a novel link between metabolic signals and heart failure. Circ J. 2007;71:460–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Wu XM, Lin YH, Chen A, Hsu TP, Wu YW, Lin HJ, Hsu RB, Lee CM. Wang SS. Ho YL, Chen MF. Prognostic significance of adipocytokines in systolic heart failure patients. Eur J Clin Invest. 2012;42:1079–86.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Butler J, Kalogeropoulos A, Georgiopoulou V, de Rekeneire N, Rodondi N, Smith AL, Hoffmann U, Kanaya A, Newman AB, Kritchevsky SB, Vasan RS, Wilson PW, Harris TB. Serum resistin concentrations and risk of new onset heart failure in older persons: the health, aging, and body composition (Health ABC) study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009;29:1144–9.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Zhang MH, Na B, Schiller NB, Whooley MA. Association of resistin with heart failure and mortality in patients with stable coronary heart disease: data from the heart and soul study. J Card Fail. 2011;17:24–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Chandrasekaran B, Dar O, McDonagh T. The role of apelin in cardiovascular function and heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail. 2008;10:725–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Tycinska AM, Lisowska A, Musial WJ, Sobkowicz B. Apelin in acute myocardial infarction and heart failure induced by ischemia. Clin Chim Acta. 2012;413:406–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Chen MM, Ashley EA, Deng DX, Tsalenko A, Deng A, Tabibiazar R, Ben-Dor A, Fenster B, Yang E, King JY, Fowler M, Robbins R, Johnson FL, Bruhn L, McDonagh T, Dargie H, Yakhini Z, Tsao PS, Quertermous T. Novel role for the potent endogenous inotrope apelin in human cardiac dysfunction. Circulation. 2003;108:1432–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Foldes G, Horkay F, Szokodi I, Vuolteenaho O, Ilves M, Lindstedt KA, Mayranpaa M, Sarman B, Seres L, Skoumal R, Lako-Futo Z. deChatel R, Ruskoaho H, Toth M. Circulating and cardiac levels of apelin, the novel ligand of the orphan receptor APJ, in patients with heart failure. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;308:480–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Chong KS, Gardner RS, Morton JJ, Ashley EA, McDonagh TA. Plasma concentrations of the novel peptide apelin are decreased in patients with chronic heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail. 2006;8:355–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Francia P, Salvati A, Balla C, De Paolis P, Pagannone E, Borro M, Gentile G, Simmaco M, De Biase L, Volpe M. Cardiac resynchronization therapy increases plasma levels of the endogenous inotrope apelin. Eur J Heart Fail. 2007;9:306–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    van Kimmenade RR, Januzzi Jr JL, Ellinor PT, Sharma UC, Bakker JA, Low AF, Martinez A, Crijns HJ, MacRae CA, Menheere PP, Pinto YM. Utility of amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, galectin-3, and apelin for the evaluation of patients with acute heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;48:1217–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Scimia MC, Hurtado C, Ray S, Metzler S, Wei K, Wang J, Woods CE, Purcell NH, Catalucci D, Akasaka T, Bueno OF, Vlasuk GP, Kaliman P, Bodmer R, Smith LH, Ashley E, Mercola M, Brown JH, Ruiz-Lozano P. APJ acts as a dual receptor in cardiac hypertrophy. Nature. 2012;488:394–8.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Dahl TB, Holm S, Aukrust P, Halvorsen B. Visfatin/NAMPT: A Multifaceted Molecule with Diverse Roles in Physiology and Pathophysiology. Annu Rev Nutr. 2012;32:229–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Wang P, Vanhoutte PM, Miao CY. Visfatin and cardio-cerebro-vascular disease. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2012;59:1–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Yndestad A, Landro L, Ueland T, Dahl CP, Flo TH, Vinge LE, Espevik T, Froland SS, Husberg C, Christensen G, Dickstein K, Kjekshus J, Oie E, Gullestad L, Aukrust P. Increased systemic and myocardial expression of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in clinical and experimental heart failure. Eur Heart J. 2009;30:1229–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Ding L, Hanawa H, Ota Y, Hasegawa G, Hao K, Asami F, Watanabe R, Yoshida T, Toba K, Yoshida K, Ogura M, Kodama M, Aizawa Y. Lipocalin-2/neutrophil gelatinase-B associated lipocalin is strongly induced in hearts of rats with autoimmune myocarditis and in human myocarditis. Circ J. 2010;74:523–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Tan BK, Adya R, Randeva HS. Omentin: a novel link between inflammation, diabesity, and cardiovascular disease. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2010;20:143–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    El-Mesallamy HO, El-Derany MO, Hamdy NM. Serum omentin-1 and chemerin levels are interrelated in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus with or without ischaemic heart disease. Diabet Med. 2011;28:1194–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Ernst MC, Sinal CJ. Chemerin: at the crossroads of inflammation and obesity. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2010;21:660–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Dong B, Ji W, Zhang Y. Elevated serum chemerin levels are associated with the presence of coronary artery disease in patients with metabolic syndrome. Intern Med. 2011;50:1093–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Bluher M. Vaspin in obesity and diabetes: pathophysiological and clinical significance. Endocrine. 2012;41:176–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Choi SH, Kwak SH, Lee Y, Moon MK, Lim S, Park YJ, Jang HC, Kim MS. Plasma vaspin concentrations are elevated in metabolic syndrome in men and are correlated with coronary atherosclerosis in women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2011;75:628–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Internal MedicineKeio University School of MedicineShinjyuku-kuJapan

Personalised recommendations