Aging and Remodeling of the RAS and RAAS and Related Pathways: Implications for Heart Failure Therapy

Chapter

Abstract

The aging population and healthcare costs for heart failure (HF) therapy in the elderly (age ≥65 years) are increasing worldwide. Cardiovascular (CV) diseases, including myocardial infarction (MI), hypertension (HTN), and HF, are all more prevalent in the elderly. While the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) has critical functions in CV physiology, an upregulated RAS plays a critical role in CV pathophysiology, including post-MI dilative remodeling and HF associated with low ejection fraction, and in hypertrophic remodeling and fibrosis associated with HTN and HF with preserved ejection fraction. Accordingly, components of the RAS are important targets for CV disease and HF pharmacotherapy. Angiotensin II (AngII) is the primary effector molecule of the RAS, and RAS/AngII inhibitors form the basis of therapy for both elderly and non-elderly HF patients. However, clinical studies indicate that elderly post-MI patients are at higher risk for adverse events despite therapy with RAS/AngII inhibitors. Remodeling of the RAS with aging may account for the poor outcome in the elderly. Aging is associated with increased AngII and other components of the RAS. Enhanced upregulation and/or dysregulation of the RAS and renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) pathways with aging may play a critical role in the accelerated march to HF and the increasing HF burden despite conventional therapy in the elderly. Increased AngII may also explain increased cytosolic and mitochondrial oxidant production, mitochondrial dysfunction, and increased extracellular matrix deposition associated with aging. Disruption of the AngII type 1 receptor confers protection from CV morbidity and mortality and promotes longevity in animal models. More research into the biology of aging-related remodeling of the RAS/RAAS and related pathways (such as kinins, ACE2/Ang (1–7) , and mineralocorticoids) may lead to discovery and development of improved therapies for post-MI and post-HTN cardiac remodeling and HF in the elderly.

Keywords

Mineralocorticoid Receptor Leave Ventricular Remodel Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor Adverse Leave Ventricular Remodel Mineralocorticoid Receptor Activation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgement

This work was supported in part by grant # IAP99003 from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Ottawa, Ontario. I am indebted to Catherine Jugdutt for expert assistance.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.2C2 W.C. Mackenzie Health Sciences Centre, Division of Cardiology, Department of MedicineMazankowski Alberta Heart Institute, University of Alberta and HospitalsEdmontonCanada

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