Advertisement

The Framework of TPACK-in-Practice: Designing Content-Centric Technology Professional Learning Contexts to Develop Teacher Knowledge of Technology-enhanced Teaching (TPACK)

  • Kamini Jaipal-Jamani
  • Candace Figg
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter presents the Framework of TPACK-in-Practice, a framework of identified characteristics and actions demonstrated by teachers in practice, when they effectively teach with technology. This framework emerged from findings of longitudinal studies of preservice and in-service teachers as they taught with technology in elementary classrooms. This Framework specifically highlights the TPACK knowledge that elementary teachers use in practice, associated with the knowledge intersections, namely, TPCK, TCK, and TPK. Further findings indicate that teacher knowledge of technology-enhanced teaching can be developed from the explicit teaching of these specific characteristics and actions. An illustrative example of the Framework’s usefulness in designing technology professional learning, for a variety of professional learning contexts (i.e., teacher education technology courses, in-service workshops), is discussed. Four stages to design professional learning workshops for teacher development of TPACK knowledge are presented. These four stages are: (a) modeling a technology-enhanced activity type (learning with the tool) to set the context and purpose for tool use, (b) integrating “pedagogical dialog” in a modeled lesson, (c) developing activity-specific technical skills through short tool demonstrations, and (d) applying TPACK-in-Practice to design their own task. The four stages provide guidelines for designing content-centric professional learning contexts for teacher development of TPACK knowledge.

Keywords

Professional learning Teacher knowledge Technology-enhanced teaching Technology integration TPACK TPACK-in-Practice 

References

  1. Angeli, C. (2005). Transforming a teacher education method course through technology: Effects on pre-service teachers’ technology competency. Computers & Education, 45(4), 383–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Angeli, C., & Valanides, N. (2005). Preservice elementary teachers as information and communication technology designers: An instructional systems design model based on an expanded view of pedagogical content knowledge. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 21(4), 292–302. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2729.2005.00135.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Angeli, C., & Valanides, N. (2009). Epistemological and methodological issues for the conceptualization, development, and assessment of ICT-TPCK: Advances in technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK). Computers & Education, 52(1), 154–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Becker, H. J. (1994). How exemplary computer-using teachers differ from other teachers: Implications for realizing the potential of computers in schools. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 26(3), 291–321.Google Scholar
  5. Brown, J. S., Collins, A., & Duguid, P. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher, 18(1), 32–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carlson, S. (2002). The missing link. TechKnowLogia, October/December, 7–11.Google Scholar
  7. Carlson, R., & Gooden, J. (1999). Are teacher preparation programs modeling technology use for pre-service teachers? ERS Spectrum, 17(3), 11–15.Google Scholar
  8. Chamberlin, B. A., & Scot, T. P. (2002). Creating sustainable technology integration with teachers. Journal of Computing in Teacher Education, 19(1), 23–28.Google Scholar
  9. Cooper, J. M., & Bull, G. L. (1997). Technology and teacher education: Past practice and recommended directions. Action in Teacher Education, 19(2), 97–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Darling-Hammond, L., Chung Wei, R., Andree, A., Richardson, N., & Orphanos, S. (2009). Professional learning in the learning profession (A status report on teacher development in the United States and abroad). Stanford, CA: National Staff Development Council and the School Redesign Network at Stanford University.Google Scholar
  11. Figg, C., & Burson, J. (2011). A handy guide for teaching and learning with technology: Designs for unpacking Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK). Raleigh, NC: Lulu.Google Scholar
  12. Figg, C., & Burson, J. (2012). Handy4class Activity Types: What is an Activity Type? Retrieved from http://www.handy4class.com/h4c2011/sample-page/
  13. Figg, C., & Jaipal, K. (2009). Unpacking TPACK: TPK characteristics supporting successful implementation. In I. Gibson et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 20th international conference of the Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education (SITE) (pp. 4069–4073). Chesapeake, VA: Association for Advancement of Computing in Education.Google Scholar
  14. Figg, C., & Jaipal, K. (2011). Developing a survey from a taxonomy of characteristics for TK, TCK, and TPK to assess teacher candidates’ knowledge of teaching with technology. In Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education international conference 2011 (pp. 4330–4339). Chesapeake, VA: AACE.Google Scholar
  15. Figg, C., & Jaipal, K. (2012). TPACK-in-Practice: Developing 21st century teacher knowledge. In P. Resta (Ed.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education international conference 2012 (pp. 4683–4689). Chesapeake, VA: AACE.Google Scholar
  16. Figg, C., Jaipal, K., & Mueller, J. (2011). Three perspectives on Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge: Framing technology education using TPACK. In Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education international conference 2011 (pp. 4297–4299). Chesapeake, VA: AACE.Google Scholar
  17. Fisher, C., Dwyer, D. C., & Yocam, K. (Eds.). (1996). Education and technology: Reflections on computing in classrooms. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  18. Friel, T., Britten, J., Compton, B., Peak, A., Schoch, K., & VanTyle, K. W. (2009). Using pedagogical dialog as a vehicle for encouraging faculty technology use. Computers & Education, 53(2), 300–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Garet, M. S., Porter, A. C., Desimone, L., Birman, B., & Yoon, K. (2007). What makes professional development effective? American Education Research Journal, 38(4), 915–945.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gavrin, A., Watt, J. X., Marrs, K., & Blake, R. E., Jr. (2004). Just-in-time teaching (JITT): Using the web to enhance classroom learning. Computers in Education Journal, 14(2), 51–60.Google Scholar
  21. Grunwald & Associates, Inc. (2010). Educators, technology and 21st century skills: Dispelling five myths: A study on the connection between K–12 technology use and 21st century skills. Walden University. Retrieved from http://www.grunwald.com/pdfs/Educators_Technology_21stCentury-Skills_GRUNWALD-WALDEN_Report.pdf
  22. Hadley, M., & Sheingold, K. (1993). Commonalities and distinctive patterns in teachers’ integration of computers. American Journal of Education, 101, 261–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Harris, J. (1998). Virtual architecture: Designing and direction curriculum-based telecomputing. Eugene, OR: International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE).Google Scholar
  24. Harris, J. (2000–2001). Structuring Internet-enriched learning spaces. Learning and Leading with Technology, 28(4), 50–55.Google Scholar
  25. Harris, J. (2005). Our agenda for technology integration: It’s time to choose. Contemporary issues in Technology and Teacher Education [Online serial], 5(2). Retrieved July 25, 2011, from www.citejournal.org/articles/v5i2editorial1.pdf
  26. Harris, J. B., & Hofer, M. (2009). Instructional planning activity types as vehicles for curriculum based TPACK development. In C. D. Maddux (Ed.), Research highlights in technology and teacher education (pp. 99–108). Chesapeake, VA: AACE.Google Scholar
  27. Harris, J. B., & Hofer, M. (2011). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge in action: A descriptive study of secondary teachers’ curriculum-based, technology-related instructional planning. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 43(3), 211–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Harris, J. B., Hofer, M., Schmidt, D. A., Blanchard, M. R., Young, C. Y., Grandgenett, N. F., et al. (2010). “Grounded” technology integration: Instructional planning using curriculum-based activity type taxonomies. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 18(4), 573–605.Google Scholar
  29. Harris, J. B., Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2007). Teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge: Curriculum-based technology integration reframed. Paper presented at the 2007 annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA), Chicago, IL.Google Scholar
  30. Harris, J. B., Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. (2009). Teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge: Curriculum-based technology integration reframed. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 41(4), 393–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hofer, M., & Harris, J. (2010). Differentiating TPACK development: Using learning activity types with in-service and pre-service teachers. In C. D. Maddux, D. Gibson, & B. Dodge (Eds.), Research highlights in technology and teacher education (pp. 295–302). Chesapeake, VA: Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education (SITE).Google Scholar
  32. Hughes, J. (2005). The role of teacher knowledge and learning experiences in forming technology-integrated pedagogy. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 13(2), 227–302.Google Scholar
  33. Jaipal, K., & Figg, C. (2010a). Expanding the practice-based taxonomy of characteristics of TPACK. In C. Crawford et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education international conference (pp. 3868–3875). Chesapeake, VA: AACE.Google Scholar
  34. Jaipal, K., & Figg, C. (2010b). Unpacking the “Total PACKage”: Emergent TPACK characteristics from a study of pre-service teachers teaching with technology. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 18(3), 415–441.Google Scholar
  35. Jaipal, K., & Figg, C. (2012). Using the TPACK-in-Practice framework to design technology professional learning for teachers. Paper presented at the 2012 annual Canadian Society for the Study of Education, Wilfred Laurier University/Waterloo University.Google Scholar
  36. Jonassen, D., Howland, J., Marra, R., & Crismond, D. (2008). Meaningful learning with technology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.Google Scholar
  37. Joyce, B., Weil, M., & Calhoun, E. (2004). Models of teaching (7th ed.). New York: Pearson.Google Scholar
  38. Kereluik, K., Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. (2010). Reconsidering the T and C in TPACK: Repurposing technologies for interdisciplinary knowledge. In D. Gibson & B. Dodge (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education international conference (pp. 3892–3899). Chesapeake, VA: AACE.Google Scholar
  39. Kinslow, J., Newcombe, E., & Goss, M. (2002). Forming a cadre of learners: Effective educational technology integration in a teacher preparation program. Journal of Computing in Teacher Education, 18(3), 81–86.Google Scholar
  40. Koehler, M. J., & Mishra, P. (2005). Teachers learning technology by design. Journal of Computing in Teacher Education, 21(3), 94–102.Google Scholar
  41. Koehler, M. J., & Mishra, P. (2008). Introducing TPCK. In AACTE Committee on Innovation and Technology (Ed.), Handbook of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) for educators. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  42. Koehler, M. J., Mishra, P., Bouck, E. C., DeShryver, M., Kereluik, K., & Shin, T. S. (2011). Deep-play: Developing TPACK for 21st century teachers. International Journal of Learning Technology, 6(2), 146–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. McCrory, R. (2008). Science, technology, and teaching: The topic-specific challenges of TPCK in science. In AACTE Committee on Innovation and Technology (Ed.), Handbook of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) for educators. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  44. McKenzie, J. (2001). How teachers learn technology best. The Educational Technology Journal, 10(6). Retrieved from http://fno.org/mar01/howlearn.html
  45. Means, B., & Olson, K. (1997). Technology and education reform. Office of Educational Research and Improvement, Contract No. RP91-172010. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from http://www.ed.gov/pubs/SER/Technology/title.html
  46. Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. (2006). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017–1054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Moallem, M. (1998). An expert teacher’s thinking and teaching and instructional design models and principles: An ethnographic study. Educational Technology Research and Development, 46, 37–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mueller, J. (2010). Observational measures of Technological, Pedagogical, Content Knowledge (TPACK) in the integration of laptop computers in elementary writing instruction. In D. Gibson & B. Dodge (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education international conference (pp. 3907–3910). Chesapeake, VA: AACE.Google Scholar
  49. Niess, M. L. (2005a). Scaffolding math learning with spreadsheets. Learning & Leading with Technology, 32(5), 24–25, 48.Google Scholar
  50. Niess, M. L. (2005b). Preparing teachers to teach science and mathematics with technology: Developing a technology pedagogical content knowledge. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21(5), 509–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Niess, M. L. (2006). Guest editorial: Preparing teachers to teach mathematics with technology. Contemporary issues in Technology and Teacher Education [Online serial], 6(2). Available: http://www.citejournal.org/vol6/iss2/mathematics/article1.cfm
  52. Owston, R., Wideman, H., Morbey, M. L., & Murphy, J. (2004). Transforming teacher professional practice through broadband technologies. In R. Ferdig et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education international conference (pp. 1818–1821). Chesapeake, VA: AACE.Google Scholar
  53. Papert, S. (1987). A critique of technocentrism in thinking about the school of the future. Retrieved from http://www.papert.org/articles/ACritiqueofTechnocentrism.html
  54. Roblyer, M. D., Edwards, J., & Havriluk, M. A. (1997). Integrating educational technology into teaching. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.Google Scholar
  55. Rosen, D. (2005). Just-in-time instruction: Supporting teacher education candidates developing technology skills. Technology and Teacher Education Annual, 2, 1221–1223.Google Scholar
  56. Schrum, L. (2005). A proactive approach to a research agenda for educational technology. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 37(3), 217–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15(2), 4–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Shulman, L. S. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57(1), 1–22.Google Scholar
  59. Sugar, W., Crawley, F., & Fine, B. (2004). Examining teachers’ decisions to adopt new technology. Educational Technology and Society, 7(4), 201–213.Google Scholar
  60. Suharwoto, G., & Niess, M. (2001). How do subject specific teacher preparation program that integrate technology throughout the courses support the development of mathematics pre-service teachers’ TPCK (Technology Pedagogical Content Knowledge)? Retrieved from http://eusesconsortium.org/docs/Site_With_Gogot.pdf
  61. Teclehaimanot, B., & Lamb, A. (2005). Technology-rich faculty development for teacher educators: The evolution of a program. Contemporary issues in Technology and Teacher Education [Online serial], 5(3/4). Available: http://www.citejournal.org/vol5/iss3/currentpractice/article2.cfm
  62. Trachan, W., & Moorman, G. (2001). Using email to create pedagogic dialogue in teacher education. Reading Research and Instruction, 40(3), 203–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Voogt, J., Thompson, A., Mishra, P., Fisser, P., Allayar, G., Agyei, D., et al. (2010). Strategies for teacher professional development on TPACK, Part 2. In D. Gibson & B. Dodge (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education international conference (pp. 3940–3943). Chesapeake, VA: AACE.Google Scholar
  64. Wei, R. C., Darling-Hammond, L., Andree, A., Richardson, N., & Orphanos, S. (2009). Professional learning in the learning profession: A status report on teacher development in the United States and abroad. Dallas, TX: National Staff Development Council.Google Scholar
  65. Zhou, G., Varnhagen, S., Sears, M. R., Kasprzak, S., & Shervey, G. (2011). Online professional development for in-service teachers in Information and Communication Technology: Potentials and challenges. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology, 33(2). Available: http://www.cjlt.ca/index.php/cjlt/article/view/2/6

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Teacher EducationBrock UniversitySt CatharinesCanada

Personalised recommendations