Primary Lithium Air Batteries

  • Ji-Guang ZhangEmail author
  • Jie Xiao
  • Wu Xu


Lithium air batteries exhibit much higher energy density than most other conventional energy-storage systems. Although there are significant barriers that need to be overcome before the commercialization of primary lithium air batteries, these barriers are less difficult to be solved than those in the rechargeable lithium air batteries. The key to realize the potential of primary lithium air batteries is a balanced design for the full batteries. This includes a balance between the mesopore structure and the macropore structures of the air electrode, a balance between oxygen solubility and polarity of the electrolyte, a balance between oxygen-diffusion rate and water penetration rate of the protective membrane, and a balance between energy density and power density of the batteries. Because of many similarities between primary and rechargeable lithium air batteries, success in primary lithium air batteries can also largely help the development of rechargeable lithium air batteries, which have great potential to be used in the next-generation energy-storage systems beyond lithium ion batteries.


Polymer Electrolyte Discharge Capacity Aqueous Electrolyte Propylene Carbonate Mesopore Volume 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pacific Northwest National LaboratoryRichlandUSA

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