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Role of Oxidative Stress in Hypertension

  • Sophocles ChrissobolisEmail author
  • Quynh N. Dinh
  • Grant R. Drummond
  • Christopher G. Sobey
Chapter
Part of the Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice book series (OXISTRESS)

Abstract

Oxidative stress, defined as an increase in steady-state levels of superoxide, is involved in the pathogenesis of several cardiovascular diseases. Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and there exists much experimental support for a role of oxidative stress in hypertension, often in association with vascular abnormalities including endothelial dysfunction. Vascular NADPH oxidases (Nox) are by far the most researched topic amongst the sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in hypertension, and are thought to be a predominant underlying cause of oxidative stress in hypertension. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the involvement of oxidative stress in association with vascular abnormalities in animal models of hypertension, with a particular emphasis on evidence for involvement of Nox in three commonly studied models: angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension, mineralocorticoid-dependent hypertension and the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Antioxidant defence mechanisms (i.e. superoxide dismutases [SOD]’s and glutathione peroxidases [GPx’s]) may limit vascular oxidative stress, thus experimental evidence discussing their likely protection against vascular oxidative stress and hypertension will be discussed. Recent concepts regarding the link between oxidative stress, the immune system and hypertension will also be covered, and finally we will briefly address clinical data providing an association between oxidative stress and hypertension, in particular the link between genetic abnormalities and oxidative stress in hypertension.

Keywords

Angiotensin II Glutathione peroxidases Hypertension Immunity NADPH oxidase Mineralocorticoids Oxidative stress Superoxide dismutases Vascular dysfunction Vascular remodelling 

Abbreviations

Ang II

Angiotensin II

AT1R

Angiotensin II type 1 receptor

Atox-1

Antioxidant-1

CD40L

CD40 ligand

COX

Cyclooxygenase

CuZnSOD

Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase

DOCA

Deoxycorticosterone acetate

DUOX

Dual oxidase

ECSOD

Extracellular superoxide dismutase

eNOS

Endothelial nitric oxide synthase

G6PD

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

GPx

Glutathione peroxidase

ICAM-1

Intracellular adhesion molecule-1

MnSOD

Manganese superoxide dismutase

NO

Nitric oxide

PPARβ

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta

RNS

Reactive nitrogen species

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SHR

Spontaneously hypertensive rat

SHRSP

Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat

siRNA

Small-interfering RNA

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

TNFα

Tumour necrosis factor alpha

VCAM-1

Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1

WKY

Wistar-Kyoto

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sophocles Chrissobolis
    • 1
    Email author
  • Quynh N. Dinh
    • 1
  • Grant R. Drummond
    • 1
  • Christopher G. Sobey
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PharmacologyMonash UniversityClaytonAustralia

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