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MRI of Intracranial Atherosclerosis

  • Mark R. RadonEmail author
  • Maneesh Bhojak
  • H. Levansri D. Makalanda
  • Damiano Giuseppe Barone
Chapter

Abstract

Intracranial atherosclerosis is an important risk factor for stroke, one whose importance has been historically underestimated in the medical literature. Further, techniques for the diagnosis of intracranial atherosclerosis have been slow; the small size and inaccessibility of the intracranial vessels have placed technical barriers in the way of imaging the intracranial vasculature.

MRI technology has shown rapid technical progression since its introduction. In the case of intracranial imaging in general, the excellent anatomical resolution and contrast and avoidance of ionising radiation make it highly desirable when compared with CT, and its non-invasive nature makes it preferable to catheter angiography. Modern techniques and equipment are capable of the fine resolution needed to examine small vessels and other structures. Moreover, there have been impressive technical developments in techniques of physiological imaging such as diffusion and perfusion imaging.

This chapter reviews the MRI techniques available for imaging of the intracranial arteries, as well as the complication of cerebral infarction, including anatomical imaging, flow imaging (MR angiography) and physiological techniques such as cerebral perfusion imaging. The technical challenges of imaging small vessels are discussed. The technical horizon now encompasses techniques such as high-resolution vessel imaging and quantitative angiographic imaging. These are briefly reviewed.

Accurate diagnosis depends upon an understanding of the pathophysiology and patterns of disease. In this chapter, the common sites and patterns of intracranial atherosclerosis are reviewed, along with prognostic factors and the associated patterns of infarction. Finally, the most common mimics of atherosclerosis are summarised together with their key diagnostic features.

Keywords

Stroke Cerebrovascular disease Internal carotid artery Middle cerebral artery Basilar artery Magnetic resonance angiography Diffusion-weighted imaging Perfusion imaging Artefact Dissection Vasculitis 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark R. Radon
    • 1
    Email author
  • Maneesh Bhojak
    • 1
  • H. Levansri D. Makalanda
    • 2
  • Damiano Giuseppe Barone
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of NeuroradiologyThe Walton Centre Foundation TrustLiverpoolUK
  2. 2.Department of NeuroradiologyRoyal London HospitalLondonUK
  3. 3.Department of NeurosurgeryThe Walton Centre Foundation TrustLiverpoolUK

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