Advertisement

Basic Principles of Magnetic Resonance Imaging

  • Martin J. GravesEmail author
  • Chengcheng Zhu

Abstract

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-ionising, and generally non-invasive, imaging modality capable of producing detailed soft-tissue images in all body areas. This chapter initially describes the basic principles of MRI starting with the phenomenon of nuclear magnetisation and tissue relaxation. The concept of spatial localisation using magnetic field gradients is then explained, followed by a description of the hardware that comprises a typical MRI system. Finally, the standard MRI pulse sequences are introduced together with an explanation of some of the current techniques used to obtain high-quality morphological and functional images of the vessel wall.

Keywords

Magnetic resonance imaging Basic principles Hardware Pulse sequences 

References

  1. 1.
    Purcell EM, Torrey HC, Pound RV. Resonance absorption by nuclear magnetic moments in a solid. Phys Rev. 1946;69:37–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bloch F, Hansen WW, Packard M. Nuclear induction. Phys Rev. 1946;69:127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lauterbur PC. Image formation by induced local interactions: examples employing nuclear magnetic resonance. Nature. 1973;242:190–1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mansfield P, Maudsley AA. Planar spin imaging by NMR. J Phys C Solid State Phys. 1976;9:L409–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Damadian R, Goldsmith M, Minkoff L. NMR in cancer: XVI. Fonar image of the live human body. Physiol Chem Phys. 1977;9:97–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hinshaw WS, Bottomley PA, Holland GN. Radiographic thin-section image of the wrist by nuclear magnetic resonance. Nature (London). 1977;270:722–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Edelstein WA, Hutchison JMS, Johnson G, Redpath TW. Spin warp NMR imaging and application to human whole-body imaging. Phys Med Biol. 1980;25:751–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hennig J, Nauerth A, Friedburg H. RARE imaging: a fast imaging method for clinical MR. Magn Reson Med. 1986;3:823–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hayes CE, Mathis CM, Yuan C. Surface coil phased arrays for high-resolution imaging of the carotid arteries. J Magn Reson Imaging. 1996;6:109–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Simonetti OP, Finn JP, White RD, Laub G, Henry DA. “Black blood” T2-weighted inversion-recovery MR imaging of the heart. Radiology. 1996;199:49–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wang J, Yarnykh VL, Hatsukami T, Chu B, Balu N, Yuan C. Improved suppression of plaque-mimicking artifacts in black-blood carotid atherosclerosis imaging using a multislice motion-sensitized driven-equilibrium (MSDE) turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequence. Magn Reson Med. 2007;58:973–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Li L, Miller KL, Jezzard P. DANTE-prepared pulse trains: a novel approach to motion-sensitized and motion-suppressed quantitative magnetic resonance imaging. Magn Reson Med. 2012;68:1423–38.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Koktzoglou I, Chung YC, Carroll TJ, Simonetti OP, Morasch MD, Li D. Three-dimensional black-blood MR imaging of carotid arteries with segmented steady-state free precession: initial experience. Radiology. 2007;243:220–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cai JM, Hatsukami TS, Ferguson MS, Small R, Polissar NL, Yuan C. Classification of human carotid atherosclerotic lesions with in vivo multicontrast magnetic resonance imaging. Circulation. 2002;106:1368–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cai J, Hatsukami TS, Ferguson MS, et al. In vivo quantitative measurement of intact fibrous cap and lipid-rich necrotic core size in atherosclerotic carotid plaque: comparison of high-resolution, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and histology. Circulation. 2005;112:3437–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kerwin WS, O’Brien KD, Ferguson MS, Polissar N, Hatsukami TS, Yuan C. Inflammation in carotid atherosclerotic plaque: a dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging study. Radiology. 2006;241:459–68.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nezafat R, Manning WJ. Coronary artery disease: high field strength coronary MRA–ready for prime time? Nat Rev Cardiol. 2009;6:676–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Miao C, Chen S, Macedo R, et al. Positive remodeling of the coronary arteries detected by magnetic resonance imaging in an asymptomatic population: MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;53:1708–15.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of RadiologyCambridge, University Hospitals NHS TrustCambridgeUK
  2. 2.VA Medical CenterUniversity of California in San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA

Personalised recommendations