International Distribution

  • David Frederick Ross


When business historians look back at the period of the last 10 years of the twentieth century and the first decades of the new millennium, one of the most salient developments will be the emergence of the global economy. For several decades after the Second World War, companies rarely ventured outside their own national boundaries. While some of the world’s largest corporations, such as Coca-Cola, Ford Motor Company, and Procter & Gamble, had historically engaged in a significant international trade, governments were fearful of exporting technologies, core skills, product, and wealth that might drain national resources in the face of the Cold War. In many cases, enormous markets, such as Eastern Europe, Russia, and China, were closed behind a seemingly impenetrable “iron curtain.” Today, the Cold War has long been part of history. Some of the world’s most vibrant economies, such as China, Brazil, and India, have emerged from behind once closed societies to engage billions of people in global commerce in the search for individual as well as national growth and well-being. The advent of connective technologies have enabled companies at the furthest ends of the earth to network their ideas and their businesses in real-time, accelerate the growth of the international marketplace, and integrate the world’s economic activities.

Supplementary material

978-1-4899-7578-2_14_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx (15 kb)
Table 14.2 Incoterms (XLSX 14 kb)
978-1-4899-7578-2_14_MOESM3_ESM.xlsx (14 kb)
Table 14.3 Buyer-Seller Responsibilities (XLSX 13 kb)
978-1-4899-7578-2_14_MOESM4_ESM.xlsx (14 kb)
Value of Exports, Imports and Balance of Goods by Selected Countries 2013 (XLSX 13 kb)
978-1-4899-7578-2_14_MOESM6_ESM.pptx (3 mb)
Chapter 14 (PPTX 3109 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Frederick Ross
    • 1
  1. 1.APICSChicagoUSA

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