Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty

  • Phillip N. Williams
  • Edward V. CraigEmail author


Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty has undergone numerous refinements since its introduction. In addition to being an effective treatment for severe cuff tear arthropathy, indications have expanded to include failed prior cuff surgery, pseudoparalysis, anterior-superior escape, tuberosity nonunion or malunion, and acute shoulder fractures. A number of studies have shown that reverse total shoulder arthroplasty can restore function including overhead elevation, improve pain, and increase external rotation. Common complications include scapular notching, dislocation, and infection. In the hands of skilled shoulder surgeons, reverse total shoulder arthroplasty can be a successful treatment for cuff tear arthropathy and other severe pathological conditions of the shoulder.


Rotator Cuff External Rotation Humeral Head Constant Score Shoulder Arthroplasty 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Basamania CJ. Hemiarthroplasty for cuff tear arthropathy. In: Advanced reconstruction shoulder. Rosemont: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons; 2007. p. 567–78.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rockwood CA. The reverse total shoulder prosthesis. The new kid on the block. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007;89(2):233–5. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.F.01394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Boileau P, Watkinson D, Hatzidakis AM, Hovorka I. Neer Award 2005: the Grammont reverse shoulder prosthesis: results in cuff tear arthritis, fracture sequelae, and revision arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2006;15(5):527–40. doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2006.01.003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gerber C, Pennington SD, Nyffeler RW. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2009;17(5):284–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Grammont P, Trouilloud P, Laffay JP, Deries X. Study and realization of a new shoulder prosthesis [in French]. Rhumatologie. 1987;39:17–22.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    McCarty DJ, Halverson PB, Carrera GF, Brewer BJ, Kozin F. “Milwaukee shoulder” – association of microspheroids containing hydroxyapatite crystals, active collagenase, and neutral protease with rotator cuff defects. I Clinical aspects. Arthritis Rheum. 1981;24(3):464–73. Available at: Scholar
  7. 7.
    Neer CS, Craig EV, Fukuda H. Cuff-tear arthropathy. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1983;65(9):1232–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nam D, Kepler CK, Neviaser AS, et al. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty: current concepts, results, and component wear analysis. J Bone Joint Surg. 2010;92 Suppl 2:23–35. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.J.00769.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Edwards TB, Boulahia A, Kempf J-F, Boileau P, Nemoz C, Walch G. The influence of rotator cuff disease on the results of shoulder arthroplasty for primary osteoarthritis: results of a multicenter study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2002;84-A(12):2240–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sanchez-Sotelo J, Cofield RH, Rowland CM. Shoulder hemiarthroplasty for glenohumeral arthritis associated with severe rotator cuff deficiency. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2001;83-A(12):1814–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sanchez-Sotelo J. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Clin Anat. 2009;22(2):172–82. doi: 10.1002/ca.20736.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Boileau P, Watkinson DJ, Hatzidakis AM, Balg F. Grammont reverse prosthesis: design, rationale, and biomechanics. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2005;14(1 Suppl S):147S–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gartsman GM, Edwards TB, editors. Shoulder arthroplasty. 1st ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2008.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wall B, Nové-Josserand L, O’Connor DP, Edwards TB, Walch G. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty: a review of results according to etiology. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007;89(7):1476–85. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.F.00666.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Williams GR, Rockwood CA. Hemiarthroplasty in rotator cuff-deficient shoulders. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 1996;5(5):362–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Amstutz HC, Thomas BJ, Kabo JM, Jinnah RH, Dorey FJ. The Dana total shoulder arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1988;70(8):1174–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Figgie MP, Inglis AE, Figgie HE, Sobel M, Burstein AH, Kraay MJ. Custom total shoulder arthroplasty in inflammatory arthritis. Preliminary results. J Arthroplasty. 1992;7(1):1–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Neer CS, Watson KC, Stanton FJ. Recent experience in total shoulder replacement. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1982;64(3):319–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Raiss P, Aldinger PR, Kasten P, Rickert M, Loew M. Total shoulder replacement in young and middle-aged patients with glenohumeral osteoarthritis. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2008;90(6):764–9. doi: 10.1302/0301-620X.90B6.20387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yian EH, Werner CML, Nyffeler RW, et al. Radiographic and computed tomography analysis of cemented pegged polyethylene glenoid components in total shoulder replacement. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005;87(9):1928–36. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.D.02675.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ecklund KJ, Lee TQ, Tibone J, Gupta R. Rotator cuff tear arthropathy. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2007;15(6):340–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Feeley BT, Gallo RA, Craig EV. Cuff tear arthropathy: current trends in diagnosis and surgical management. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2009;18(3):484–94. doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2008.11.003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Boileau P, Baqué F, Valerio L, Ahrens P, Chuinard C, Trojani C. Isolated arthroscopic biceps tenotomy or tenodesis improves symptoms in patients with massive irreparable rotator cuff tears. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007;89(4):747–57. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.E.01097.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Guery J, Favard L, Sirveaux F, Oudet D, Molé D, Walch G. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Survivorship analysis of eighty replacements followed for five to ten years. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006;88(8):1742–7. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.E.00851.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Werner CML, Steinmann PA, Gilbart M, Gerber C. Treatment of painful pseudoparesis due to irreparable rotator cuff dysfunction with the Delta III reverse-ball-and-socket total shoulder prosthesis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005;87(7):1476–86. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.D.02342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Frankle M, Levy JC, Pupello D, et al. The reverse shoulder prosthesis for glenohumeral arthritis associated with severe rotator cuff deficiency: a minimum two-year follow-up study of sixty patients surgical technique. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006;88(Suppl 1 Pt 2):178–90. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.F.00123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gerber C, Pennington SD, Lingenfelter EJ, Sukthankar A. Reverse Delta-III total shoulder replacement combined with latissimus dorsi transfer: a preliminary report. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007;89(5):940–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Favre P, Loeb MD, Helmy N, Gerber C. Latissimus dorsi transfer to restore external rotation with reverse shoulder arthroplasty: a biomechanical study. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2008;17(4):650–8. doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2007.12.010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Boileau P, Chuinard C, Roussanne Y, Bicknell RT. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty combined with a modified latissimus dorsi and teres major tendon transfer for shoulder pseudoparalysis associated with dropping arm. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008;466(3):584–93.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gulotta LV, Choi D, Marinello P, et al. Anterior deltoid deficiency in reverse total shoulder replacement: a biomechanical study with cadavers. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2012;94(12):1666–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kölbel R, Friedebold G. Stabilization of shoulders with bone and muscle defects using joint replacement implants. In: Shoulder surgery. At Louis: Mosby; 1984.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Nyffeler RW, Werner CML, Gerber C. Biomechanical relevance of glenoid component positioning in the reverse Delta III total shoulder prosthesis. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2005;14(5):524–8. doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2004.09.010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Swanson AB, de Groot Swanson G, Sattel AB, Cendo RD, Hynes D, Jar-Ning W. Bipolar implant shoulder arthroplasty. Long-term results. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1989;249:227–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Boulahia A, Edwards TB, Walch G, Baratta RV. Early results of a reverse design prosthesis in the treatment of arthritis of the shoulder in elderly patients with a large rotator cuff tear. Orthopedics. 2002;25(2):129–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mole D, Favard L. Excentered scapulohumeral osteoarthritis. Rev Chir Orthop Reparatrice Appar Mot. 2007;93(6 Suppl):37–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Clark J, Ritchie J, Song F, Kissenberth M, Tolan S, Hart N, Hawkins R. Complication rates, dislocation, pain, and postoperative range of motion after reverse shoulder arthroplasty in patients with and without repair of the subscapularis. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2012;21(1):36–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gulotta LV, Choi D, Marinello P, et al. Humeral component retroversion in reverse total shoulder arthroplasty: a biomechanical study. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2012;9:1121–7. doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2011.07.027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gutiérrez S, Comiskey CA, Luo Z-P, Pupello DR, Frankle MA. Range of impingement-free abduction and adduction deficit after reverse shoulder arthroplasty. Hierarchy of surgical and implant-design-related factors. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008;90(12):2606–15. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.H.00012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Simovitch RW, Zumstein MA, Lohri E, Helmy N, Gerber C. Predictors of scapular notching in patients managed with the Delta III reverse total shoulder replacement. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007;89(3):588–600. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.F.00226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sirveaux F, Favard L, Oudet D, Huquet D, Walch G, Mole D. Grammont inverted total shoulder arthroplasty in the treatment of glenohumeral osteoarthritis with massive rupture of the cuff. Results of a multicentre study of 80 shoulders. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2004;86(3):388–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gerber C, Vinh TS, Hertel R, Hess CW. Latissimus dorsi transfer for the treatment of massive tears of the rotator cuff. A preliminary report. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1988;232:51–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Young SW, Zhu M, Walker CG, Poon PC. Comparison of functional outcomes of reverse shoulder arthroplasty with those of hemiarthroplasty in the treatment of cuff-tear arthropathy: a matched-pair analysis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2013;95(10):910–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sershon RA, Van Thiel GS, Lin EC, et al. Clinical outcomes of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty in patients aged younger than 60 years. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2013. doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2013.07.047.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ek ETH, Neukom L, Catanzaro S, Gerber C. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for massive irreparable rotator cuff tears in patients younger than 65 years old: results after five to fifteen years. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2013;22(9):1199–208. doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2012.11.016.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Boileau P, Gonzalez J-F, Chuinard C, Bicknell R, Walch G. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty after failed rotator cuff surgery. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2009;18(4):600–6. doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2009.03.011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Mulieri P, Dunning P, Klein S, Pupello D. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty for the treatment of irreparable rotator cuff tear without glenohumeral arthritis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2010;92(15):2544–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Levy J, Frankle M, Mighell M, Pupello D. The use of the reverse shoulder prosthesis for the treatment of failed hemiarthroplasty for proximal humeral fracture. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007;89(2):292–300. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.E.01310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rittmeister M, Kerschbaumer F. Grammont reverse total shoulder arthroplasty in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and nonreconstructible rotator cuff lesions. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2001;10(1):17–22. doi: 10.1067/mse.2001.110515.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Holcomb JO, Herbert D, Mighell M, et al. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2010;19(7):1076–84. doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2009.11.049.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Nolan BM, Ankerson E, Wiater JM. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty improves function in cuff tear arthropathy. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2011;469(9):2476–82. doi: 10.1007/s11999-010-1683-z.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Woodruff MJ, Cohen AP, Bradley JG. Arthroplasty of the shoulder in rheumatoid arthritis with rotator cuff dysfunction. Int Orthop. 2003;27(1):7–10. doi: 10.1007/s00264-002-0406-9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Sirveaux F, Navez G, Favard L, Boileau P, Walch G, Mole D. Reverse prosthesis for acute proximal humerus fracture: the multicenter study. In: Reverse shoulder arthroplasty: clinical results, complications, revision. Montpellier: Sauramps Medical; 2006. p. 73–80.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Matsen FA, Boileau P, Walch G, Gerber C, Bicknell RT. The reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007;89(3):660–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Neer CS. Articular replacement for the humeral head. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1955;37-A(2):215–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Zyto K, Wallace WA, Frostick SP, Preston BJ. Outcome after hemiarthroplasty for three- and four-part fractures of the proximal humerus. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 1998;7(2):85–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Goldman RT, Koval KJ, Cuomo F, Gallagher MA, Zuckerman JD. Functional outcome after humeral head replacement for acute three- and four-part proximal humeral fractures. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 1995;4(2):81–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Boileau P, Krishnan SG, Tinsi L, Walch G, Coste JS, Mole D. Tuberosity malposition and migration: reasons for poor outcomes after hemiarthroplasty for displaced fractures of the proximal humerus. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2002;11(5):401–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kralinger F, Schwaiger R, Wambacher M, et al. Outcome after primary hemiarthroplasty for fracture of the head of the humerus. A retrospective multicentre study of 167 patients. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2004;86(2):217–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Krishnan SG, Reineck JR, Bennion PD, Feher L, Burkhead WZ. Shoulder arthroplasty for fracture: does a fracture-specific stem make a difference? Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2011;469(12):3317–23. doi: 10.1007/s11999-011-1919-6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Reuther F, Mühlhäusler B, Wahl D, Nijs S. Functional outcome of shoulder hemiarthroplasty for fractures: a multicentre analysis. Injury. 2010;41(6):606–12. doi: 10.1016/j.injury.2009.11.019.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Namdari S, Horneff JG, Baldwin K. Comparison of hemiarthroplasty and reverse arthroplasty for treatment of proximal humeral fractures: a systematic review. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2013;95(18):1701–8. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.L.01115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Bufquin T, Hersan A, Hubert L, Massin P. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty for the treatment of three- and four-part fractures of the proximal humerus in the elderly: a prospective review of 43 cases with a short-term follow-up. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2007;89(4):516–20. doi: 10.1302/0301-620X.89B4.18435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Flury MP, Frey P, Goldhahn J, Schwyzer H-K, Simmen BR. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty as a salvage procedure for failed conventional shoulder replacement due to cuff failure – midterm results. Int Orthop. 2011;35(1):53–60. doi: 10.1007/s00264-010-0990-z.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Klein M, Juschka M, Hinkenjann B, Scherger B, Ostermann PAW. Treatment of comminuted fractures of the proximal humerus in elderly patients with the Delta III reverse shoulder prosthesis. J Orthop Trauma. 2008;22(10):698–704. doi: 10.1097/BOT.0b013e31818afe40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Walch G, Boileau P, Mole D, Favard L, Levigne C, Sirveaux F, editors. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty: clinical results, complications, revision. In: Revision of shoulder hemiarthroplasty with reverse prosthesis.Sauramps Medical, Montpellier; 2006. p. 217–28.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Holcomb JO, Cuff D, Petersen SA, Pupello DR, Frankle MA. Revision reverse shoulder arthroplasty for glenoid baseplate failure after primary reverse shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2009;18(5):717–23. doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2008.11.017.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Walch G, Mole D, Mole, et al., editors. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty: clinical results, complications, revision. In: The reverse shoulder prosthesis for revision of failed total shoulder arthroplasty. Sauramps Medical, Montpellier; 2006. p. 231–42.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Boileau P, Melis B, Duperron D, Moineau G, Rumian AP, Han Y. Revision surgery of reverse shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2013;22(10):1359–70. doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2013.02.004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Cuff D, Levy JC, Gutiérrez S, Frankle MA. Torsional stability of modular and non-modular reverse shoulder humeral components in a proximal humeral bone loss model. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2011;20(4):646–51. doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2010.10.026.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Edwards TB, Williams MD, Labriola JE, Elkousy HA, Gartsman GM, O’Connor DP. Subscapularis insufficiency and the risk of shoulder dislocation after reverse shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2009;18(6):892–6. doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2008.12.013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Lädermann A, Williams MD, Melis B, Hoffmeyer P, Walch G. Objective evaluation of lengthening in reverse shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2009;18(4):588–95. doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2009.03.012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Zumstein MA, Pinedo M, Old J, Boileau P. Problems, complications, reoperations, and revisions in reverse total shoulder arthroplasty: a systematic review. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2011;20(1):146–57. doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2010.08.001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Dillon MT, Inacio MCS, Burke MF, Navarro RA, Yian EH. Shoulder arthroplasty in patients 59 years of age and younger. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2013;22(10):1338–44. doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2013.01.029.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Muh SJ, Streit JJ, Wanner JP, Lenarz CJ. Early follow-up of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty in patients sixty years of age or younger. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2013;95(20):1877–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Favard L, Levigne C, Nerot C, Gerber C, De Wilde L, Molé D. Reverse prostheses in arthropathies with cuff tear: are survivorship and function maintained over time? Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2011;469(9):2469–75. doi: 10.1007/s11999-011-1833-y.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Grassi FA, Murena L, Valli F, Alberio R. Six-year experience with the Delta III reverse shoulder prosthesis. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong). 2009;17(2):151–6. Available at: Scholar
  77. 77.
    John M, Pap G, Angst F, et al. Short-term results after reversed shoulder arthroplasty (Delta III) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and irreparable rotator cuff tear. Int Orthop. 2010;34(1):71–7. doi: 10.1007/s00264-009-0733-1.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Farshad M, Gerber C. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty-from the most to the least common complication. Int Orthop. 2010;34(8):1075–82. doi: 10.1007/s00264-010-1125-2.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Vanhove B, Beugnies A. Grammont’s reverse shoulder prosthesis for rotator cuff arthropathy. A retrospective study of 32 cases. Acta Orthop Belg. 2004;70(3):219–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Levigne C, Garret J, Boileau P, Alami G, Favard L, Walch G. Scapular notching in reverse shoulder arthroplasty: is it important to avoid it and how? Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2011;469(9):2512–20.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Levy JC, Virani N, Pupello D, Frankle M. Use of the reverse shoulder prosthesis for the treatment of failed hemiarthroplasty in patients with glenohumeral arthritis and rotator cuff deficiency. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2007;89(2):189–95. doi: 10.1302/0301-620X.89B2.18161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Cuff D, Pupello D, Virani N, Levy J, Frankle M. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty for the treatment of rotator cuff deficiency. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008;90(6):1244–51. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.G.00775.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kalouche I, Sevivas N, Wahegaonker A, Sauzières P, Katz D, Valenti P. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty: does reduced medialisation improve radiological and clinical results? Acta Orthop Belg. 2009;75(2):158–66. Available at: Scholar
  84. 84.
    Naveed MA, Kitson J, Bunker TD. The Delta III reverse shoulder replacement for cuff tear arthropathy: a single-centre study of 50 consecutive procedures. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2011;93(1):57–61. doi: 10.1302/0301-620X.93B1.24218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Gonzalez J-F, Alami GB, Baqué F, Walch G, Boileau P. Complications of unconstrained shoulder prostheses. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2011;20(4):666–82. doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2010.11.017.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Dodson CC, Thomas A, Dines JS, Nho SJ, Williams RJ, Altchek DW. Medial ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction of the elbow in throwing athletes. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34(12):1926–32. doi: 10.1177/0363546506290988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Zavala JA, Clark JC, Kissenberth MJ, Tolan SJ, Hawkins RJ. Management of deep infection after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty: a case series. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2012;21(10):1310–5. doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2011.08.047.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Sarris IK, Papadimitriou NG, Sotereanos DG. Bipolar hemiarthroplasty for chronic rotator cuff tear arthropathy. J Arthroplasty. 2003;18(2):169–73. doi: 10.1054/arth.2003.50041.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Walch G, Mottier F, Wall B, Boileau P, Molé D, Favard L. Acromial insufficiency in reverse shoulder arthroplasties. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2009;18(3):495–502. doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2008.12.002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Wahlquist TC, Hunt AF, Braman JP. Acromial base fractures after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty: report of five cases. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2011;20(7):1178–83. doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2011.01.029.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Walch G, Young AA, Boileau P, Loew M, Gazielly D, Molé D. Patterns of loosening of polyethylene keeled glenoid components after shoulder arthroplasty for primary osteoarthritis: results of a multicenter study with more than five years of follow-up. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012;94:145–50. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.J.00699. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryHospital for Special SurgeryNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Weill Cornell Medical SchoolNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Attending SurgeonHospital for Special SurgeryNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations