Data Reconstruction

  • Michael K. Miller
  • Richard G. Forbes


The data produced by atom probe tomography must be processed in order to extract the materials information from the specimen. It is critical that the process is performed with care, as any errors introduced in the reconstruction of the three-dimensional data or interpreting the identity of the atoms can seriously impact the reliability and interpretation of the data. The correct assignment of the atoms in the mass peaks to the appropriate elements is critical, especially with the increasing size of the datasets and complexity of nonmetallic materials with their high proportion of molecular ions. The experimental procedures required to conduct an APT experiment are outlined. The interpretation of the mass-to-charge-state data into elemental identities, the current methods used to process the raw data from the LEAP into 3D information that can be visualized and analyzed, and the assumptions that are made in the reconstruction of the atom coordinates are discussed. The simple methods that are used to test the quality of the data including atoms maps, isosurfaces, and spatial distribution maps are also presented.


Atom Probe Bulk Metallic Glass Local Electrode Field Evaporation Pulse Fraction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    S.S. Brenner, J. Kowalik, H. Ming-Jian, Surf. Sci. 246, 210 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    G.L. Kellogg, J. Appl. Phys. 53, 6383 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    D.J. Larson, T.J. Prosa, J.H. Bunton, D. Olson, D. Lawrence, E. Oltman, S.N. Stennen, T.F. Kelly, Microsc. Microanal. 19(S3), 994 (2013)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    M.K. Miller, P.A. Beavan, G.D.W. Smith, Surf. Interface Anal. 1, 149 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    M.K. Miller, G.D.W. Smith, Atom Probe Microanalysis (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, PA, 1989), p. 193Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    S.R. Broderick, A. Bryden, S.K. Suram, K. Rajan, Ultramicroscopy 132, 121 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    D. Saxey, Ultramicroscopy 111, 473 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    T.T. Tsong, Y.S. Ng, S.V. Krisnaswamy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 778 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    A. Cerezo, G.D.W. Smith, A.R. Waugh, J. de Phys. 45-C9, 329 (1984)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    E.W. Müller, Field ionization and field ion microscopy, in Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, vol 13 (Academic, New York, 1960), p. 83Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    B. Deconihout, A. Bostel, P. Bas, S. Chambreland, L. Letellier, F. Danoix, D. Blavette, Appl. Surf. Sci. 76/77, 145 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    P. Bas, A. Bostel, B. Deconihout, D. Blavettte, Appl. Surf. Sci. 87/88, 298 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    D. Blavette, J.M. Sarrau, A. Bostel, J. Gallot, Rev. Phys. Appl. 17, 435 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. Bostel, D. Blavette, A. Menand, J.M. Sarrau, J. de Phys. 50-C8, 501 (1989)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. Cerezo, M.G. Hetherington, J. de Phys. 50-C8, 523 (1989)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    S.D. Walck, T. Buyuklimanli, J.J. Hren, J. de Phys. 47-C2, 451 (1986)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    M.K. Miller, Atom Probe Tomography (Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York, 2000), pp. 144–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    B.P. Geiser, D.J. Larson, J.D. Olson, S.S. Gerstl, D.A. Reinhard, T.F. Kelly, T.J. Prosa, Microsc. Microanal. 15(S2), 302 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    B.P. Geiser, D.J. Larson, E. Oltman, S.S. Gerstl, D.A. Reinhard, T.F. Kelly, T.J. Prosa, Microsc. Microanal. 15(S2), 292 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    B. Gault, D. Haley, F. DeGeuser, M.P. Moody, E.A. Marquis, D.J. Larson, B.P. Geiser, Ultramicroscopy 111, 448 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    D. Haley, T. Petersen, S.P. Ringer, G.D.W. Smith, J. Microsc. 244, 170 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    D.J. Larson, B.P. Geiser, T.J. Prosa, T.F. Kelly, Microsc. Microanal. 17(S2), 724 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    D.J. Larson, B.P. Geiser, T.J. Prosa, T.F. Kelly, Microsc. Microanal. 18, 953 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    F. Vurpillot, B. Gault, B.P. Geiser, D.J. Larson, Ultramicroscopy 132, 19 (2013), and references thereinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    D.J. Larson, B. Gault, B.P. Geiser, F. De Geuser, F. Vurpillot, Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci 17, 236 (2013), and references thereinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    T. Jeske, G. Schmitz, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 327, 101 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    T.T. Tsong, Surf. Sci. 70, 211 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    D.J. Larson, B. Geiser, T. Prosa, R. Ulfig, T. Kelly, Microsc. Microanal. 17(S2), 740 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    M.K. Miller, M.G. Hetherington, Surf. Sci. 246, 442 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    M.K. Miller, J. de Phys. 48-C6, 565 (1987)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    F. Vurpillot, D.J. Larson, A. Cerezo, Surf. Interface Anal. 36, 552 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    F. De Geuser, W. Lefebvre, F. Danoix, F. Vurpillot, B. Forbord, D. Blavette, Surf. Interface Anal. 39, 268 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    D.J. Larson, B.P. Geiser, T.J. Prosa, S.S.A. Gerstl, D.A. Reinhard, T.F. Kelly, J. Microsc. 243, 15 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    A.J.W. Moore, Philos. Mag. A 43, 803 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    A.R. Waugh, E.D. Boyes, M.J. Southon, Surf. Sci. 61, 109 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    F. Vurpillot, A. Bostel, A. Menand, D. Blavette, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 6, 217 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    F. Vurpillot, A. Bostel, D. Blavette, J. Microsc. 196, 332 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    E.A. Marquis, F. Vurpillot, Microsc. Microanal. 14, 561 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    M.K. Miller, K.F. Russell, Surf. Sci. 246, 299 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    D.J. Larson, M.K. Miller, Mater. Sci. Eng. A250, 72 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    D.J. Larson, K.F. Russell, M.K. Miller, Microsc. Microanal. 5(S2), 930 (1999)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    D. Blavette, Doctoral thesis, University of Rouen, France, 1981Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    F. Vurpillot, M. Gruber, G. Da Costa, I. Martin, L. Renaud, A. Bostel, Ultramicroscopy 111, 1286 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    D.J. Larson, T.J. Prosa, B.P. Geiser, W.F. Egelhoff Jr., Ultramicroscopy 111, 506 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    S.T. Loi, B. Gault, S.P. Ringer, D.J. Larson, B.P. Geiser, Ultramicroscopy 132, 107 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    B. Gault, S.T. Loi, V.J. Araullo-Peters, L.T. Stephenson, M.P. Moody, S.L. Shrestha, R.K.W. Marceau, L. Yao, J.M. Cairney, S.P. Ringer, Ultramicroscopy 111, 1619 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    M.P. Moody, B. Gault, L.T. Stephenson, R.K.W. Marceau, R.C. Powles, A.V. Ceguerra, A.J. Breen, S.P. Ringer, Microsc. Microanal. 17, 226 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    B.P. Geiser, D.J. Larson, T.J. Prosa, T.F. Kelly, Microsc. Microanal. 19(S2), 936 (2013)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    C. Oberdorfer, G. Schmitz, Microsc. Microanal. 17, 15 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    C. Oberdorfer, S.M. Eich, G. Schmitz, Ultramicroscopy 128, 55 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    A. Bryden, S. Broderick, S.K. Suram, K. Kaluskar, R. LeSar, K. Rajan, Ultramicroscopy 132, 129 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    M. Kendall, A. Stuart, J.K. Ord, The Advanced Theory of Statistics, 4th edn. (Griffin, London, 1983)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    A. Cerezo, M.G. Hetherington, J.M. Hyde, M.K. Miller, Scripta Metall. 25, 1435 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    A. Serizawa, M.K. Miller, Proceedings of Materials Research Society Symposium, NN, vol 1231 (Materials Research Society, Warrendale, PA, 2010), 1231-NN07-03Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    K.L. Torres, M. Daniil, M.A. Willard, G.B. Thompson, Ultramicroscopy 111, 464 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    A. Serizawa, M.K. Miller, Microsc. Res. Tech. 76, 1196 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    W.E. Lorensen, H.E. Cline, Computer Graphics 21(4), 163 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    M.K. Miller, L. Longstreth-Spoor, K.F. Kelton, Ultramicroscopy 111, 469 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    E.O. Brigham, The Fast Fourier Transform (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1974)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    P.J. Warren, A. Cerezo, G.D.W. Smith, Microsc. Microanal. 5, 89 (1998)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    P.J. Warren, A. Cerezo, G.D.W. Smith, Ultramicroscopy 73, 261 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    P.P. Camus, D.J. Larson, T.F. Kelly, Appl. Surf. Sci. 87/88, 305 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    B.P. Geiser, T.F. Kelly, D.J. Larson, J. Schneir, J.P. Roberts, Microsc. Microanal. 13, 437 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    T.F. Kelly, E. Voelkl, B.P. Geiser, Microsc. Microanal. 15(S2), 12 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    M.P. Moody, B. Gault, L.T. Stephenson, D. Haley, S.P. Ringer, Ultramicroscopy 109, 815 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    M.P. Moody, F. Tang, B. Gault, S.P. Ringer, J.M. Cairney, Ultramicroscopy 111, 493 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    E.A. Marquis, B.P. Geiser, M. Hekmaty, D.J. Larson, Microsc. Microanal. 13(S2), 196 (2007)Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    B.P. Geiser, D.J. Larson, T.J. Prosa, T.F. Kelly, R.M. Ulfig, Microsc. Microanal. 19(S2), 1000 (2013)Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    L. Yao, M.P. Moody, J.M. Cairney, D. Haley, A.V. Ceguerra, C. Zhu, S.P. Ringer, Ultramicroscopy 111, 458 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    L. Yao, S.P. Ringer, J.M. Cairney, M.K. Miller, Scripta Mater. 69, 622 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    M.K. Miller, L. Yao, Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 17, 203 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    M.K. Miller, T.F. Kelly, Microsc. Microanal. 16(S2), 1856 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    T.F. Kelly, M.K. Miller, K. Rajan, S.P. Ringer, A.Y. Borisevich, N. Dellby, O. Krivanek, Microsc. Microanal. 17(S2), 708 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    M.K. Miller, T.F. Kelly, K. Rajan, S.P. Ringer, Mater. Today 15(4), 159 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    T.F. Kelly, M.K. Miller, K. Rajan, S.P. Ringer, Microsc. Today 20(3), 12 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    T.F. Kelly, M.K. Miller, K. Rajan, S.P. Ringer, Microsc. Microanal. 19(3), 652 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    F. Vurpillot, L. Renaud, D. Blavette, Ultramicroscopy 95, 223 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    B. Gault, M.P. Moody, J.M. Cairney, S.P. Ringer, Mater. Today 15, 378 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael K. Miller
    • 1
  • Richard G. Forbes
    • 2
  1. 1.Oak Ridge National LaboratoryOak RidgeUSA
  2. 2.Department of Electronic EngineeringUniversity of SurreyGuildfordUK

Personalised recommendations