The Local Electrode Atom Probe

  • Michael K. Miller
  • Richard G. Forbes


Detailed descriptions of the components of the local electrode atom probe (LEAP) and of its general methods of operation are presented in this chapter. The LEAP is a three-chamber ultrahigh vacuum instrument consisting of a fast-entry airlock, a buffer chamber for temporary storage of specimens and local electrodes, and a spectrometry chamber. The spectrometry chamber accommodates the time-of-flight mass spectrometer, i.e., the specimen, a local electrode, an optional energy-compensating reflectron to improve the mass-resolving power, and a position-sensitive single-ion detector based on crossed delay lines. The flight times are determined by a time-to-digital converter. Timing starts from the field evaporation pulse and stops when ions strike the single-ion detector. The specimen is mounted on a nano-positioning stage, which is used to align the specimen with the aperture in the local electrode.


Atom Probe Local Electrode Phosphor Screen Field Evaporation Buffer Chamber 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    T.F. Kelly, P.P. Camus, D.J. Larson, L.M. Holzman, S.S. Bajikar, High mass resolution local-electrode atom probe, U.S. Patent 5,440,124, 8 Aug 1995Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    T.F. Kelly, P.P. Camus, D.J. Larson, L.M. Holzman, S.S. Bajikar, Ultramicroscopy 62, 29 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    T.F. Kelly, D.J. Larson, Mater. Charact. 44, 59 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    T.T. Gribb, High resolution atom probe, U.S. Patent 7,157,702, 2 Jan 2007Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    R.M. Ulfig, D.J. Larson, S.S.A. Gerstl, Microsc. Microanal. 14(S2), 124 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    K.F. Russell, M.K. Miller, R.M. Ulfig, T. Gribb, Ultramicroscopy 107, 750 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    D.G. Ast, D.N. Seidman, J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 2, 575 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    D.N. Seidman, R.M. Scanlan, D.L. Styris, J.W. Bohlen, J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 2, 473 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    G.P.E.M. Van Bakel, D.A. Shashkov, D.N. Seidman, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3774 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    M.K. Miller, T.J. Godfrey, G.D.W. Smith, J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 9, 116 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    C.B. Johnson, P.-R. Lin, R.L. Pierle, Microchannel plate having low ion feedback, method of its manufacture, and devices using such a microchannel plate, U.S. Patent 6,215,232, 10 Apr 2001Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    B. Deconihout, P. Gerard, M. Bouet, A. Bostel, Appl. Surf. Sci. 94/95, 422 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    S.J. Sijbrandij, A. Cerezo, B. Deconihout, T.J. Godfrey, G.D.W. Smith, J. de Phys. IV 6-C5, 297 (1996)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    A.S. Tremsin, J.F. Pearson, J.E. Lees, G.W. Fraser, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. A 368, 719 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    S.J. Sijbrandij, M.K. Miller, Ultramicroscopy 79, 265 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M.K. Miller, T.F. Kelly, K. Rajan, S.P. Ringer, Mater. Today 15(4), 158 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    T.F. Kelly, M.K. Miller, K. Rajan, S.P. Ringer, Microsc. Today 20(3), 12 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    W. Koenig, A. Faibis, E.P. Kanter, Z. Vager, B.J. Zabransky, J. Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. B10/11, 259 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    H. Keller, G. Klingelhoeffer, E. Kankeleit, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A258, 221 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    S.E. Sobottka, M.B. Williams, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 35, 348 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    O.H.W. Siegmund, M.L. Lampton, R. Raffanti, in Proc. EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy and Atomic Physics, SPIE 1159, edited by C. J. Hailey, O. H. W. Siegmund (1989) p. 476Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    O. Jagutzki, A. Cerezo, A. Czasch, R. Dörner, M. Hattass, M. Huang, V. Mergel, U. Spillmann, K. Ullmann-Pfleger, T. Weber, H. Schmidt-Böcking, G.D.W. Smith, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49, 2477 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    P.G. Friedman, R.A. Cuza, J.R. Fleischman, C. Martin, D. Schiminovich, D.J. Doyle, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 596 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    T.T. Gribb, J.J. Larkin, Delay line anodes, U.S. Patent 7,019,307, 28 Mar 2006Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    E.W. Müller, S.V. Krishnaswamy, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 45, 1053 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    W.P. Poschenreider, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 9, 357 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    B.A. Mamyrin, V.I. Karataev, D.V. Shmikk, V.A. Zagulin, Sov. Phys. JETP 37, 45 (1973)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    A.N. Kudryavtsev, N.V. Nikonenko, B.M. Dubenskii, D.V. Shmikk, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 15, 261 (1989)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    W. Drachsel, L.v. Alvensleben, A.J. Melmed. J. de Phys. 50-C8, 541 (1989)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    P.P. Camus, A.J. Melmed, Surf. Sci. 246, 450 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    A. Cerezo, T.J. Godfrey, S.J. Sijbrandij, G.D.W. Smith, P.J. Warren, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 49 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    S.J. Sijbrandij, A. Cerezo, T.J. Godfrey, G.D.W. Smith, Appl. Surf. Sci. 94/95, 428 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    P. Panayi, Reflectron, U.S. Patent 8,134,119, 13 Mar 2012Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    P. Panayi, Atom probe, Patent WO 2006/134380, 2006Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    S. Scherer, K. Altwegg, H. Balsiger, J. Fischer, A. Jäckel, A. Korth, M. Mildner, D. Piazza, H. Reme, P. Wurz, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 251, 73 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    M.R. Scheinfein, D.N. Seidman, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3126 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    T.F. Kelly, Microsc. Microanal. 17, 1 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael K. Miller
    • 1
  • Richard G. Forbes
    • 2
  1. 1.Oak Ridge National LaboratoryOak RidgeUSA
  2. 2.Department of Electronic EngineeringUniversity of SurreyGuildfordUK

Personalised recommendations