The Art of Specimen Preparation

  • Michael K. Miller
  • Richard G. Forbes


The main methods of preparing high-quality atom probe specimens are outlined in this chapter. The two main approaches are electropolishing and focused ion beam (FIB)-based milling techniques. Electropolishing procedures have been developed for many metallic specimens but are rarely suitable for nonmetals. Nonmetals are almost exclusively prepared by FIB-based techniques. FIB-based techniques are also used to extract specimens by in situ lift-out (INLO) methods from site-specific locations, such as grain boundaries, interphase interfaces, low volume fraction phases, and embedded regions. Several other forms of specimens, such as powders, sheet, and thin ribbons, may also be prepared by FIB-based techniques.


Atom Probe Bulk Specimen Interphase Interface Apex Region Local Electrode Atom Probe 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael K. Miller
    • 1
  • Richard G. Forbes
    • 2
  1. 1.Oak Ridge National LaboratoryOak RidgeUSA
  2. 2.Department of Electronic EngineeringUniversity of SurreyGuildfordUK

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