Advertisement

Behavioral Effects of Anticholinergic Psychotomimetics and Their Antagonists in Man and Animals

  • Samuel Gershon

Abstract

Although it appears clear that several types of neurohumoral transmission systems are involved in the central nervous system, little is known concerning their relative roles in controlling central and peripheral activities. Gross changes in the levels of any one of these substances have been reported to produce changes in behavior [8,4,27]. How these systems are affected and interrelated in mental disease is even less clearly understood.

Keywords

Anticholinergic Agent Anticholinergic Activity Organophosphorus Insecticide Cluster Score Johns Hopkins Hosp 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Bell, C., and Gershon, S.: Experimental Anticholinergic Psychotomimetics. Antagonism of Yohimbine and Tacrine (THA), Med. Exper. 10: 15–21, 1964.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bell, C., Gershon, S., Carroll, B., and Holan, G.: Behavioral Antagonism to a New Psychotomimetic: JB-329, Arch. Intern. Pharmacodyn. Therap. 147: 9–25, 1964.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bender, L.: A Visual Motor Gestalt Test and Its Clinical Use, Research Monograph No. 3, American Orthopsychiatric Association, New York, 1938.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brodie, B. B., and Shore, P. A.: A Concept for a Role of Serotonin and Norepinephrine as Chemical Mediators in the Brain, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 66: 631–642, 1957.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Delay, J., Deniker, P., Verdeaux, G., Ginestet, D., and Peron, P.: Intérnt des commies cliniques et polygraphiques simultanés pour l’évaluation précoce de l’activité de certaines drogues chez l’homme, Neuropsychopharmacology 3: 1962.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    (Fazio, C.) Giberti, F., Roccatagliata, G., and Rossi, R.: Study of the Neurological Effects and of the Psychopathological Action of a New Drug with Psychotomimetic Action (JB 329 or Ditran) in Depressed Patients, Sistema Nervoso, No. 3: 167–175, 1961.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Feldberg, W.: Animal Behavior and Drug Action, Ciba Foundation, Reuck and Knight (eds.), Little, Brown and Company, Boston, 1964, pp. 429–433.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Feldberg, W., and Sherwood, S.: Behavior of Cats after Intraventricular Injections of Eserine and DFP, J. Physiol. 125: 488–500, 1954.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Finkelstein, B. A.: Ditran: A Psychotherapeutic Advance, J. Neuropsychiat. 2: 144–148, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gershon, S.: Blocking Effect of Tetrahydroaminacrin on a New Psychotomimetic Agent, Nature 186: 1072–1073, 1960.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gershon, S., and Lang, W.: A Psychopharmacological Study of Some Indole Alkaloids, Arch. Intern. Pharmacodyn. Therap. 135: 31–56, 1962.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gershon, S., and Olariu, J.: JE-329-A New Psychotomimetic-Its Antagonism by Tetrahydroaminacrin and Its Comparison with LSD, Mescaline, and Sernyl, J. Neuropsychiat. 1: 283–292, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gershon, S., and Shaw, F. H.: Psychiatric Sequelae of Chronic Exposure to Organophosphorus Insecticides, Lancet, June 24: 1371–1374, 1961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Goldenberg, M. A.: Induction of Certain Symptoms of Atropine Psychosis in Animals and Their Significance, Novosebersk. Govt. Med. Inst. Publ. 29: 7, 1957.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Greig, M. E., and Gibbons, A. J.: Effect of Various Psychotomimetic Drugs on Rate of Appearance of Carbon-14 in the Brains of Mice after Administration of C-14 Glucose, Am. J. Physiol. 196: 803–806, 1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Grob, D., Lilienthal, J. L., Jr., Harvey, A.M., and Jones, B. F.: Administration of Di-isopropyl Fluorophosphate (DFP) to Man. I. Effect on Plasma Erythrocyte Cholinesterase: General Systemic Effects, Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 81: 217–244, 1947.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Grob, D., Harvey, A. M., Langworthy, O. R., and Lilienthal, J. L., Jr.: Administration of Di-isopropyl Fluorophosphate (DFP) to Man. III. Effect on Central Nervous System with Special Reference to the Electrical Activity of the Brain, Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 81: 257–266, 1947.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Grob, D., Garlick, W. L., and Harvey, A. M.: Toxic Effects in Man of Anticholinesterase Insecticide Parathion (p-Nitrophenyl Diethyl Thionophosphate), Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 87: 106–129, 1950.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Horowitz, Z. P., and Chow, M. I.: Effect of Centrally Active Drugs on the Correlation of Electrocortical Activity and Wakefulness of Cats, J. Pharmacol. Exper. Therap. 137: 127–132, 1962.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lakeside Laboratories, Inc.: Preclinical and clinical information brochure.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lebovits, B.Z., Visotsky, H. M., and Ostfeld, A.M.: LSD and JB-318: Comparison of Two Hallucinogens, Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 7: 39–45, 1962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Leslie, G. B., and Maxwell, D. R.: Some Pharmacological Properties of Thioproperazine and Their Modification by Anti-Parkinsonian Drugs, Brit. J. Pharmacol. 22: 301–317, 1964.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Meduna, L. J., and Abood, L. G.: Studies of a New Drug (Ditran) in Depressive States, J. Neuropsychiat. 1: 20–22, 1959.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Morpurgo, C.: Effects of Anti-Parkinsonian Drugs one Phenothiazine-Induced Catatonic Reaction, Arch. Intern. Pharmacodyn. Therap. 134: 84–90, 1962.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Neubauer, H., Sundland, D., and Gershon, S.: Ditran and Its Antagonists in a Mixed Psychiatric Population, J. Nervous Mental Disease (in press).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Proctor, C. D., Ridlon, S. A., Fudema, J. J., and Prabhu, V. G.: Extension of Tranquilizer Action by Anticholinesterases, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 6: 1–8, 1964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rowntree, D. W., Nevin, S., and Wilson, A.: Effects of Di-isopropyl Fluorophosphonate in Schizophrenia and Manic Depressive Psychosis, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 13: 47–62, 1950.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sherwood, S.: Intraventricular Medication in Catatonic Stupor (prelim. comm.), Brain 75: 68–75, 1952.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Siegel, S.: Nonparametric Statistics, New York, 1956, McGraw-Hill Book Company.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wikler, A.: The Relation of Psychiatry to Pharmacology, American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Baltimore, 1957, The Williams amp; Wilkins Co.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wilson, R. E., and Shagass, C.: Comparison of Two Drugs with Psychotomimetic Effects (LSD and Ditran), J. Nervous Mental Disease 138: 277–286, 1964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1966

Authors and Affiliations

  • Samuel Gershon
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and NeurologyNew York University Medical CenterNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations