The clay minerals are a group of complex alumino-silicates, mainly formed during the chemical weathering of primary minerals. Because of their small size and flat shape, they have very large specific surfaces. There is usually a negative electric charge on the crystal surfaces, and the electro-chemical forces on these surfaces are therefore predominant in determining their engineering properties. In order to understand why these materials behave as they do, it will be necessary to examine their crystal structure in some detail.


Clay Mineral Adsorbed Layer Crystal Face Octahedral Layer Black Cotton Soil 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. R. Scott
    • 1
  1. 1.The City UniversityLondonEngland

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