Patterns of Spore Formation in Neurospora Crassa and Their Simulation With a Cellular Automaton

  • A. Deutsch
  • L. Rensing
  • A. Dress
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSB, volume 244)


We have analyzed the spatial pattern formation of macroconidia in Neurospora crassa (bd-strain). Macroconidia are the vegetative spores produced during vegetative growth of a mycelium as shown in Fig. 1. A fungal mycelium is initiated by a spore (or a small portion of mycelium) in the centre of a nutrient agar plate. Hyphae grow and branch in radial directions from this centre (Fig. 2). They can differentiate into aerial hyphae which give rise to spores (macroconidia). The well known concentric ring pattern of spore distribution is due to an internal clock mechanism (circadian rhythm) controlling spore differentiation (see [5, 6] for review). Various facts support the hypothesis that each hyphal filament contains an internal clock. Thus the fungal mycelium may represent an ensemble of coupled or noncoupled oscillators[2, 14].


Circadian Rhythm Cellular Automaton Fungal Mycelium Neurospora Crassa Spore Formation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    Bourret, R.A., Lincoln, R.G. & Carpenter, B.B. (1969). Fungal endogenous rhythms expressed by spiral figures. Science 166, 763.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Dharmananda, S. & Feldman, J.F. (1979). Spatial distribution of circadian rhythm in aging cultures of Neurospora Crassa. Plant Physiol. 63, 1049.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Dienes, L. (1946). Reproductive processes in Proteus cultures. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. N.Y. 63, 265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Dienes, L. (1947). Further observations on the reproduction of bacilli from large bodies in Proteus cultures. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. N.Y. 66, 97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Edmunds, L.N. (1988). Cellular and molecular bases of biological clocks. Springer: New York, Berlin, Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Feldman, J.F. & Dunlap, J.C. (1983). Neurospora Crassa: A unique system for studying circadian rhythms. Photochem. Photobiol. Rev. 7, 319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Horowitz, N.H. (1947). Methionine synthesis in Neurospora. JBC, 255.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Neumann, J.v. (1966). Theory of self-reproducing automata University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Smith, D.G. (1972). The Proteus swarming phenomenon. Sc. Prog. (Oxford) 60, 487.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Vogel, H.J. (1964). Distribution of lysine pathways among fungi: evolutionary implications. Amer. Naturalist 98, 430.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Winfree, A.T. (1970). The oscillatory control of cell differentiation in Nectria. Proc. IEEE Symp. on Adaptive Processes XXIII, 4.1–4.7.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Winfree, A.T. (1973). Polymorphic pattern formation in the fungus Nectria. J. Theor. Biol. 38, 363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Winfree, A.T. (1980). The geometry of biological time. Springer: New York, Berlin, Heidelberg.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Winfree, A.T. & Twaddle, G.M. (1981). The Neurospora mycelium as a two-dimensional continuum of coupled circadian clocks. In Mathematical Biology, Burton, T.A. (ed.). Pergamon Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Deutsch
    • 1
  • L. Rensing
    • 1
  • A. Dress
    • 2
  1. 1.Fachbereich Biologie der UniversitätBremenGermany
  2. 2.Fakultät für Mathematik der UniversitätBielefeldGermany

Personalised recommendations