Advertisement

Alcohol pp 67-81 | Cite as

Tolerance and Dependence

  • Norman S. Miller
  • Mark S. Gold
Part of the Drugs of Abuse a Comprehensive Series for Clinicians book series (DOAC, volume 2)

Abstract

The answer to alcoholism probably does not lie in the understanding of tolerance and dependence, although they may lead scientists closer to the mystery of addiction to alcohol. Alcoholism is not a unique condition except that the addiction is to alcohol and not drugs, food, money, or power. Tolerance and dependence are also not uniquely found in alcoholism. Tolerance and dependence are naturally occurring “adaptations” found in the use of many drugs, either those to which man becomes addicted or those that benefit man as medications for diseases and other behaviors, especially those that are associated with other addictions.1, 2

Keywords

Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium Tremens Abstinence Syndrome Paranoid Delusion Dependence Syndrome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Jaffe JH: Drug addiction and drug abuse. In Gilman AG, Goodman LS, Rall TW, Murad F. eds: The Pharmocological Basis of Therapeutics, 7th ed., pp. 532–581. New York, Macmillan, 1985.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Miller NS, Dackis CA, Gold MS: The relationship of addiction, tolerance and dependence to alcohol and drugs: A neurochemi-cal approach. Journal of Substance Abuse and Treatment, 1987; 4:197–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Victor M, Adams RP: The effect of alcohol on the nervous system. Research Publications, Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease, 1953; 32:526–573.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hill MA, Bangham AD: General depressant drug dependency: A biophysical hypothesis. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 1975; 59:1–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Majchrowicz E, Noble EP: Biochemistry and Pharmacology of Eth-anol, Vol. 1. New York: Plenum Press, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wilson JR, Erwin G, McClearn GE, Plomin R, Johnson RC, Ahern FM, Cole RE: Effects of behavior: II. Behavioral sensitivity and acute behavioral tolerance. Alcoholism, 1984; 8:4.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Goldstein DB: The effects of drugs on membrane fluidity. In Cowan WM, Shooter EM, Stevens CE Thompson RC, eds.: Annual Review of Pharmacology, 1984; 24:43-64.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jellinek EM: The disease concept of alcoholism. New Brunswick, NJ, Hillhouse Press, 1960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Edwards G, Auf A, Hodgson R: Nomenclature and classification of drug and alcohol-related problems: A WHO memorandum. Ball Who, 1981; 59:225–242.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lieber CS: Medical Disorders of Alcoholism Pathogenesis and Treatment. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Company, 1982.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Melium KL, Morrelli HF: Clinical Pharmacology, 2 ed., New York, Macmillan, 1978.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Miller NS, Goodwin DW, Jones FC, Anand MM, Pardo MP, Gabrielli WF, Pottash AC, Gold MS: Antihistamine blockade of alcohol-induced flushing in Orientals. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, vol. 49(1), January, 1988:16–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Goodwin DW: Alcoholism and heredity. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1979; 36:57–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Goodwin DW: Alcoholism and genetics. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1985; 42:171–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tabakoff B, Ritzmann RF, Raju TS, Deitrich RA: Characterization of acute and chronic tolerance in mice selected for inherent differences in sensitivity to ethanol. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 1980; 4:70–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Goldstein DB: The effects of drugs on membrane fluidity. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 1984; 24:43–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chin JH, Goldstein DB: Drug tolerance in biomembranes: A spin label study of the effects of ethanol. Science, 1977b; 196:684–685.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chan AW: Racial differences in alcohol sensitivity. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 1986; 21:193–204.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chin JH, Parsons LM, Goldstein DB: Increased cholesterol content of erythrocyte and brain membranes in ethanol tolerant mice. Biochima et Piophysica Acta, 1978; J13:358–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chin JH, Goldstein DB: Membrane disordering action of ethanol: Variation with membrane cholesterol content and depth of the spin label probe. Mol Pharmacol, 1981; 19:425–531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Miller NS: A blood marker for pharmacodynamic tolerance to alcohol. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 1987; 4:93–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Norman S. Miller
    • 1
  • Mark S. Gold
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Cornell University Medical CollegeWhite PlainsUSA
  2. 2.Fair Oaks HospitalSummitUSA
  3. 3.Delray BeachUSA

Personalised recommendations