Advertisement

Alcohol pp 181-198 | Cite as

Benzodiazepine Use and Addiction among Alcoholics

  • Norman S. Miller
  • Mark S. Gold
Part of the Drugs of Abuse a Comprehensive Series for Clinicians book series (DOAC, volume 2)

Abstract

The link between alcohol and benzodiazepines is strong. Approximately half of all alcoholics also are addicted to benzodiazepines, and some 50% of those who use benzodiazepines regularly for medical and nonmedical purposes also are alcoholic. (A majority of them also use other drugs as well, most notably marijuana, cigarettes, and cocaine.)1, 34–42 The pharmacological properties and subjective effects of the two classes of drugs are similar, and both are readily available for nonillicit sources, promoting widespread misconceptions of their dangers and addictive potential.

Keywords

Irritable Bowel Syndrome Withdrawal Syndrome Drug Addict Drug Abuse Warning Network Hyperexcitable State 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    DuPont RL, ed.: Abuse of benzodiazepines: The problems and the solutions; A report of the Committee of the Institute for Behavior and Health, Inc. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 1988; 14(1):l-69.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Noyes R, Garvey MJ, Cook BL, Perry PF: Benzodiazepine withdrawal: A review of the evidence. J Clin Psychiatry 1988; 49(10):382–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Top 200 Drugs of 1987. The American Druggist 1988; 197(2):36-52.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Drug evaluations, antianxiety and hypnotic drugs. Chapter 5, ed. 6, American Medical Association 1987; 86-103.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Smith DE, Wesson DR: Benzodiazepine dependency syndromes. J Psychoactive Drugs 1983; 15(1-2):85–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ashton H: Adverse effects of prolonged benzodiazepine use. Adverse Drug Reaction Bulletin 1986; 118:440–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hallstrom L, Lader M: Benzodiazepine withdrawal phenomena. Int Pharmacopsychiat 1981; 16:235–244.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Busto U, Sellers EM: Pharmacokinetic determinants of drug abuse and dependence: A conceptual perspective. Clinical Phar-macokinetics 1986; 11:144–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rosenberg HC, Chiu TH: Time course for development of benzodiazepine tolerance and physical dependence. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Review 1985; 9:123–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rickels MD, Case G, Schweizer EE, et al.: Low-dose dependence on chronic benzodiazepine users: A preliminary report on 119 patients. Psychopharmocology Bulletin 1986; 22(2).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Owen RT, Tyrer P: Benzodiazepine dependence: A review of the evidence. Drugs 1983; 25:385–398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ashton H: Benzodiazepine withdrawal: Outcome in 50 patients. British J ddiction 1987; 82:665–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lader M: Dependence on benzodiazepines. J Clin Psychiatry 1983; 44:121–127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ashton H: Benzodiazepine withdrawal: An unfinished story. Br Medical Journal 1984; 288:1135–1140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Busto U, Sellers EM, Claudio NA, et al.: Withdrawal reaction after long-term therapeutic use of benzodiazepines. New England Journal of Medicine Oct. 2, 1986, pp. 854-869.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Juergens SM, Morse RM: Alprazolam dependence in seven patients. Am J Psychiatry 1988; 145(2): 625–627.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lader M: The psychopharmacology of addiction—benzodiaze-pine tolerance and dependence. In Lader M ed.: The psychophar-macology of addiction. New York, Oxford University Press, 1988, pp. 1–13.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Murphey SM, Tyrer P: The essence of benzodiazepine dependence. In Lader M ed.: The psychopharmacology of addiction. New York, Oxford University Press, 1988, pp. 157–166.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tjiauw-Ling T, Bixler EO, Kales A, Cadieux RJ, Goodman AL: Early morning insomnia, daytime anxiety, and organic mental disorder associated with triazolam. Journal of Family Practice 1985; 20(6):592–594.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Miller F, Whitcup S, Sacks M, Lynch PE: Unrecognized drug dependence and withdrawal in the elderly. Drug and Alcohol Depend 1985; 15:177–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tyrer PJ, Scivewright N: Identification and management of benzodiazepine dependence. Postgraduate Medical Journal 1984; 60(Suppl 2):41–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Higgitt A, Golombok S, Fonagy P, et al.: Group treatment of benzodiazepine dependence. British J Addict 1987; 517-532.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cappell H, Busto U, Kay G: Drug deprivation and reinforcement by diazepam in a dependent population. Psychopharmacology 1987; 91:154–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Greenblatt DJ, Harmatz JS, Zinny MA, Shader RI: Effect of gradual withdrawal on the rebound sleep disorder after discontinuation of triazolam. New England Journal of Medicine 1987; 17:722–728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fyer A, Liebowitz MR, Gorman JM, et al.: Discontinuation of alprazolam treatment in panic patients. Am J Psychiatry 1987; 144:303–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rickels K, Case G, Downing RW, Winokur A: Long-term diazepam therapy and clinical outcome. JAMA 1983; 250(6): 767–771.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lader M: Benzodiazepine dependence. Neuro-Psychopharmacol and Biol Psychiatry 1984; 8:85–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tyrer P, Rutherford D, Huggett T: Benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms and propranolol. The Lancet 1981; 520-522.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pertusson H, Lader MH: Withdrawal from long-term benzodiazepine treatment. British Medical Journal 1981; 283:643–645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Pevnick JS, Jasinske DR, Haertzen CA: Abrupt withdrawal from therapeutically administered diazepam. Archives of General Psychiatry 1978; 35:995–998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lader M, Olajide D: A comparison of buspirone and placebo in relieving benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms. J Clin Psycho-pharmacology 1987; 7(1):11–15.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tyrer PJ: Benzodiazepines on trial. British Medical Journal 1984; 288(6424):1101–1102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Griffiths RR, Sannerud CA: Abuse of and dependence on benzodiazepines and other anxiolytic/sedative drugs. In Meltzer HY, ed.: Psychopharmacology. New York, Raven Press, 1987, pp. 1535–1541.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: National Institute on Drug Abuse. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1985.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chan AWK: Effects of combined alcohol and benzodiazepine: A review. Drug and Alcohol Depend 1984; 13:315–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Grantham P: Benzodiazepine abuse. British Journal of Hospital Medicine 1987; 37:999–1001.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ciraulo DA, Sands BF, Shader RI: Critical review of liability for benzodiazepine abuse among alcoholics. Am J Psychiatry 1988; 145:1501–1506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Schuster CL, Humphries RH: Benzodiazepine dependency in alcoholics. Connecticut Medicine 11-13, January 1981.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Perera KMH, Tulley M, Jenner FA: The use of benzodiazepines among drug addicts. British J Addict 1987; 82:511–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Laux G, Puryear DA: Benzodiazepines—misuse, abuse and dependency. American Family Physician 1984; 30:139–147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Allgulander C, Ljungberg L, Fisher LD: Acta Psychiatr Scand 1987; 75:521–531.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sellers EM, Marshman JA, Kaplan HL, et al.: Acute and chronic drug abuse emergencies in metropolitan Toronto. International J of the Addictions 1981; 16(2):283–303.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Miller NS, Dackis CA, Gold MS: The relationship of addiction, tolerance and dependence: A neurochemical approach. J Substance Abuse Treatment 1987; 4:197–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Jaffe JH: Drug addiction and drug abuse. In Gilman A, Goodman LS, Rall TW, Murad F, eds.: Pharmacological bases of therapeutics. Chapter 23, New York, MacMillan Publishing Co., 1985, pp. 532–581.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Haefely W: Biological basis of drug-induced tolerance, rebound, and dependence: Contribution of recent research on benzodiazepines. Pharmacopsychiat 1986; 19:353–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lader M, File S: Editorial. The biological basis of benzodiaze-pine dependence. Psychological Medicine 1987; 17:539–547.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ryan GP, Boisse NR: Benzodiazepine tolerance, physical dependence and withdrawal: Electrophysiological study of spinal reflex function. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 1984; 231(2):464–471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rottenberg H: Alcohol modulation of benzodiazepine receptors. Alcohol 1985; 2:203–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Greenblatt DJ, Divoll M, Abernethy DR, Ochs HR, Shader RI: Benzodiazepine kinetics: Implications for therapeutics and pharmacogeriatrics. Drug Metab Rev 1983; 14:251–292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Greenblatt DJ, Divoll M, Abernethy DR, Ochs HR, Shader RI: Clinical pharmacokinetics of the newer benzodiazepines. Clin Pharmacokinet 1983; 8:233–252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Greenblatt DJ, Shader RI, Divoll M, Harmatz JS: Benzodiazepines: A summary of pharmacokinetic properties. Br J Clin Pharmacol (suppl) 1981; 11:11S–16S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Perry PJ, Alexander B: Sedative/hypnotic dependence: Patient stabilization, tolerance, testing and withdrawal. Drug Intelligence and Clinical Pharmacy 1986; 20:532–536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Harrison M, Busto U, Naranjo CA: Diazepam tapering in detoxification for high-dose benzodiazepine abuse. Clin Pharmacol Ther. October 1984:527-533.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Norman S. Miller
    • 1
  • Mark S. Gold
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Cornell University Medical CollegeWhite PlainsUSA
  2. 2.Fair Oaks HospitalSummitUSA
  3. 3.Delray BeachUSA

Personalised recommendations