Advertisement

Justice pp 11-45 | Cite as

Philosophy and Justice

Chapter
Part of the Critical Issues in Social Justice book series (CISJ)

Abstract

Justice is usually said to exist when a person receives that to which he or she is entitled, namely, exactly those benefits and burdens that are due the individual because of his or her particular characteristics and circumstances. If someone states that a certain person or act is good or moral or virtuous, he or she does not necessarily mean that that person or act is just. Mary may believe, for example, that Tom’s lending her his coat when she was cold was good or generous—but it was an act of beneficence, not of justice. Similarily, if someone states that a certain person or act is immoral or wrong, he or she does not necessarily mean that it is unjust. Tom may be deliberately rude to his employees, and he may show callous disregard for the suffering of a poor man whom he could easily help—but although he acts immorally in both instances, he may perhaps ease his conscience by reminding himself that at least he did not act unjustly. The point here is simply that justice is not the whole of morality, it is only one part of it. Thus justice is one characteristic among many of a good society. As William Frankena (1962, p. ix) states, “Societies can be loving, efficient, prosperous, or good, as well as just, but they may be just without being notably benevolent, efficient, prosperous, or good.”1

Keywords

Distributive Justice Moral Theory Difference Principle Primary Good Formal Principle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aristotle. (1953). Nichomachean ethics (J. A. K. Thompson, Trans.). London: George Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  2. Benn, S., & Peters, R. S. (1965). The principles of political thought. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  3. Berlin, I. (1956). Equality. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, LVI, 301–326.Google Scholar
  4. Brock, D. W. (1973). Recent work in utilitarianism. American Philosophical Quarterly, 10, 245–249.Google Scholar
  5. Buchanan, A. E. (1982). Marx and justice: The radical critique of liberalism. Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Allanheld.Google Scholar
  6. Buchanan, A. E. (1983a). Marx on democracy and the obsolescence of rights. South African Journal of Philosophy, 2, 130–135.Google Scholar
  7. Buchanan, A. E. (1983b). Review: Wood’s Karl Marx. The Journal of Philosophy, LXXX, 424–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Buchanan, A. E. (1985). Ethics, efficiency, and the market. Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Allanheld.Google Scholar
  9. Cohen, G. A. (1978). Karl Marx’s theory of history: A defense. Oxford: Routledge & Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  10. Cohen, G. A. (1981). Robert Nozick and Wilt Chamberlain: How patterns preserve liberty. In J. Arthur & W. H. Shaw (Eds.), Justice and economic distribution (pp. 246–262). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  11. Daniels, N. (Ed.). (n. d.). Reading Rawls: Critical studies of A Theory of Justice. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  12. Dworkin, Ronald. (1977). Taking Rights Seriously. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Easton, L. D., & Guddhat, K. H. (1967). Writings of the young Marx on philosophy and society. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  14. Feinberg, J. (1973). Social philosophy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  15. Feinberg, J., & Gross, H. (Eds.). (1975). Punishment: Selected readings. Belmont, CA: Dickenson Publishing.Google Scholar
  16. Feinberg, J., & Gross, H. (Eds.). (1980). Philosophy of law (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  17. Foot, P. (1977). Euthanasia. Philosophy and Public Affairs, 6, 85–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Frankena, W. (1962). The concept of social justice. In R. B. Brandt (Ed.), Social justice (pp. 1–29). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  19. Frankena, W. (1973). Ethics (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  20. Gross, H. (1979). A theory of criminal justice. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Hart, H. L. A. (1961). The concept of law. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  22. Hart, H. L. A. (1968). Punishment and responsibility. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  23. Hayek, F. (1960). The constitution of liberty. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  24. Hume, D. (1975). An enquiry concerning the principles of morals. In L. A. Selby-Bigge (Ed.), Enquiries concerning human understanding and concerning the principles of morals. Oxford: Clarendon Press. (Originally published 1775)Google Scholar
  25. Kant, I. (1959). Foundations of the metaphysics of morals (L. W. Beck, Trans.) New York: Bobbs-Merrill. (Originally published 1785)Google Scholar
  26. Locke, J. (1967). Two treatises of government (2nd ed.). P. Laslett (Ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Originally published 1698)Google Scholar
  27. Lyons, D. (Ed.). (1979). Rights. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  28. McLellan, D. (1977). Karl Marx: Selected writings. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Mill, J. S. (1961). Utilitarianism. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. (Originally published 1861)Google Scholar
  30. Mueller, D. (1979). Public choice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Murphy, J. G. (Ed.). (1973). Punishment and rehabilitation. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  32. Nozick, R. (1974). Anarchy, state, and Utopia. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  33. Olson, M. (1965). The logic of collective action. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Paul, J. (Ed.). (1981). Reading Nozick. Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  35. Plato. (1945). The republic (F. M. Cornford, Trans.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Rawls, J. (1971). A theory of justice. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Rawls, J. (1974). Reply to Alexander and Musgrave. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 88(4), 633–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rawls, J. (1975). Fairness to goodness. Philosophical Review, 84, 536–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rawls, J. (1980). Kantian construction in moral theory. The Journal of Philosophy, 77, 515–571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rawls, J. (1981, April 10). The basic liberties and their priority: The Tanner Lectures on Human Values. Delivered at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  41. Rawls, J. (1985). Justice as fairness: Political not metaphysical. Philosophy and Public Affairs, 14, 223–251.Google Scholar
  42. Rescher, N. (1972). Welfare: The social issue in philosophical perspective. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.Google Scholar
  43. Sartorius, R. E. (1975). Individual conduct and social norms. Encino, CA: Dickenson.Google Scholar
  44. Smart, J. C. C., & Williams, B. (1973). Utilitarianism: For and against. London: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wolff, R. P. (1977). Understanding Rawls. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Wood, A. W. (1981). Karl Marx. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhilosophyUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Political ScienceUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA

Personalised recommendations