Sir Edward Mellanby in 1921 was the first to show clearly that rickets is a nutritional disease, and that cod-liver oil contains a factor that prevents it. In 1922 McCollum and co-workers treated cod-liver oil by bubbling oxygen through it. This destroyed the antixerophthalmic properties but left the antirachitic properties, thus indicating the presence of two factors: factor A (or vitamin A) and the antirachitic factor, which they later termed ‘fat-soluble’ vitamin D. Zucker and co-workers in 1922 found that vitamin D was present in the unsaponifiable fraction of cod-liver oil, and suggested that it was closely related to cholesterol.


Infant Formula Liquid Chromatographic Determination Thermal Isomerization Silver Phosphate Fortify Milk 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Agarwal, V.K. (1989) Liquid chromatographic determination of vitamin D in infant formula. J. Ass. Off. Analyt. Chem., 72, 1007–9.Google Scholar
  2. AOAC (1990) Vitamin D in milk, vitamin preparations, and feed concentrates. Rat bioassay. Final action. In AOAC Official Methods of Analysis, 15th edn (ed. K. Helrich ), Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Inc., Arlington, VA, 936. 14.Google Scholar
  3. Arnaud, S.B., Goldsmith, R.S., Lambert, P.W. and Go, V.L.W. (1975) 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3: evidence of an enterohepatic circulation in man. Proc. Soc. Expt. Biol. Med., 149, 570–2.Google Scholar
  4. Asano, T., Hasegawa, T., Suzuki, K. et al. (1981) Determination of vitamin D3-sulfate in milk by high-performance liquid chromatography. Nutr. Rep. Int., 24, 451–6.Google Scholar
  5. Batchelor, A.J. and Compston, J.E. (1983) Reduced plasma half-life of radio-labelled 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in subjects receiving a high-fibre diet. Br. J. Nutr., 49, 213–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bekhof, J.J. and van den Bedem, J.W. (1988) Study on the determination of vitamin D in fortified milk, milk powder and infant formula by HPLC using a column switching technique. Neth. Milk Dairy J., 42, 423–35.Google Scholar
  7. Bui, M.H. (1987) Sample preparation and liquid chromatographic determination of vitamin D in food products. J. Ass. Off. Analyt. Chem., 70, 802–5.Google Scholar
  8. Burnand, B., Sloutskis, D., Gianoli, F. et al. (1992) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D: distribution and determinants in the Swiss population. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 56, 537–42.Google Scholar
  9. Chen, P.S. Jr, Terepka, R., Lane, K. and Marsh, A. (1965) Studies of the stability and extractability of vitamin D. Analyt. Biochem., 10, 421–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clemens, T.L., Henderson, S.L., Adams, J.S. and Holick, M.F. (1982) Increased skin pigment reduces the capacity of skin to synthesize vitamin D3. Lancet, I, 74–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Clements, M.R., Chalmers, T.M. and Fraser, D.R. (1984) Enterohepatic circulation of vitamin D: a reappraisal of the hypothesis. Lancet, I (No. 8391), 1376–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cohen, H. and Wakeford, B. (1980) High pressure liquid chromatographic determination of vitamin D3 in instant nonfat dried milk. J. Ass. Off. Analyt. Chem., 63, 1163–7.Google Scholar
  13. Collins, E.D. and Norman, A.W. (1991) Vitamin D. In Handbook of Vitamins, 2nd edn (ed. L.J. Machlin ), Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, pp. 59–98.Google Scholar
  14. Compston, J.E., Merrett, A.L., Hammett, F.G. and Magill, P. (1981) Comparison of the appearance of radiolabelled vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 in the chylomicron fraction of plasma after oral administration in man. Clin. Sci., 60, 241–3.Google Scholar
  15. Cremin, F.M. and Power, P. (1985) Vitamins in bovine and human milks. In Developments in Dairy Chemistry, Vol. III (ed. P.F. Fox ), Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, London, pp. 337–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. DeLuca, H.F. (1978) Vitamin D. In Handbook of Vitamin Research, Vol. II (ed. H.F. DeLuca), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 69–132.Google Scholar
  17. DeLuca, H.F. (1988) Vitamin D and its metabolites. In Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease (eds M.E. Shils and V.R. Young ), Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, pp. 313–27.Google Scholar
  18. de Vries, E.J., Zeeman, J., Esser, R.J.E. et al. (1979) Analysis of fat-soluble vitamins. XXI. High pressure liquid chromatographic assay methods for vitamin D in vitamin D concentrates. J. Ass. Off. Analyt. Chem., 62, 129–35.Google Scholar
  19. Dueland, S., Pedersen, J.I., Helgerud, P. and Drevon, C.A. (1982) Transport of vitamin D3 from rat intestine. J. Biol. Chem., 257, 146–50.Google Scholar
  20. Dueland, S., Helgerud, P., Pedersen, J.I. et al. (1983a) Plasma clearance, transfer, and distribution of vitamin D3 from intestinal lymph. Am. J. Physiol., 245, E326–31.Google Scholar
  21. Dueland, S., Pedersen, J.I., Helgerud, P. and Drevon, C.A. (1983b) Absorption, distribution, and transport of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in the rat. Am. J. Physiol., 245, E463–7.Google Scholar
  22. Fraser, D.R. (1983) The physiological economy of vitamin D. Lancet, I (No. 8331), 969–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gascon-Barré, M. (1982) Biliary excretion of [3H]-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in the vitamin D-depleted rat. Am. J. Physiol., 242, G522–32.Google Scholar
  24. Gascon-Barré, M. (1986) Is there any physiological significance to the enterohepatic circulation of vitamin D sterols? J. Am. College Nutr., 5, 317–24.Google Scholar
  25. Gascon-Barré, M. and Joly, J.-G. (1981) The biliary excretion of [3H]-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 following chronic ethanol administration in the rat. Life Sci., 28, 279–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Grady, L.T. and Thakker, K.D. (1980) Stability of solid drugs: degradation of ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) at high humidities and elevated temperatures. J. Pharm. Sci., 69, 1099–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Haddad, J.G. Jr and Walgate, J. (1976) 25-Hydroxyvitamin D transport in human plasma. Isolation and partial characterization of calcifidol-binding protein. J. Biol. Chem., 251, 4803–9.Google Scholar
  28. Hanewald, K.H., Mulder, F.J. and Keuning, K.J. (1968) Thin-layer chromatographic assay of vitamin D in high-potency preparations. J. Pharm. Sci., 57, 1308–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hasegawa, H. (1992) Vitamin D determination using high-performance liquid chromatography with internal standard-redox mode electrochemical detection and its application to medical nutritional products. J. Chromat., 605, 215–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hollis, B.W. and Frank, N.E. (1986) Quantitation of vitamin D2, vitamin D3, 25-hydroxyvitamin D2, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in human milk. Meth. Enzymo1., 123, Part H, 167–76.Google Scholar
  31. Holmes, R.P. and Kummerow, F.A. (1983) The relationship of adequate and excessive intake of vitamin D to health and disease. J. Am. College Nutr., 2, 173–99.Google Scholar
  32. Homberg, E. (1993) Vitamin D determination in margarine. Fat Sci. Technol., 95, 181–5 (in German).Google Scholar
  33. Horst, R.L., Napoli, J.L. and Littledike, E.T. (1982) Discrimination in the metabolism of orally dosed ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol by the pig, rat and chick. Biochem. J., 204, 185–9.Google Scholar
  34. Indyk, H. and Woollard, D.C. (1984) The determination of vitamin D in milk powders by high performance liquid chromatography. NZ J. Dairy Sci. Technol., 19, 19–30.Google Scholar
  35. Indyk, H. and Woollard, D.C. (1985a) The determination of vitamin D in supplemented milk powders by HPLC. II. Incorporation of internal standard. NZ J. Dairy Sci. Technol., 20, 19–28.Google Scholar
  36. Indyk, H. and Woollard, D.C. (1985b) The determination of vitamin D in fortified milk powders and infant formulas by HPLC. J. Micronutr. Anal., 1, 121–41.Google Scholar
  37. Indyk, H., Littlejohn, V. and Woollard, D.C. (1996) Stability of vitamin D3 during spray-drying of milk. Food Chem., 57, 283–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jackson, P.A., Shelton, C.J. and Frier, P.J. (1982) High performance liquid chromatographic determination of vitamin D3 in foods with particular reference to eggs. Analyst, Lond., 107, 1363–9.Google Scholar
  39. Johnsson, H., Halén, B., Hessel, H. et al. (1989) Determination of vitamin D3 in margarines, oils and other supplemented food products using HPLC. Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res., 59, 262–8.Google Scholar
  40. Jones, G. and DeLuca, H.F. (1975) High-pressure liquid chromatography: separation of the metabolites of vitamins D2 and D3 on small-particle silica columns. J. Lipid Res., 16, 448–53.Google Scholar
  41. Keverling Buisman, J.A., Hanewald, K.H., Mulder, F.J. et al. (1968) Evaluation of the effect of isomerization on the chemical and biological assay of vitamin D. J. Pharm. Sci., 57, 1326–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kläui, H.M., Hausheer, W. and Huschke, G. (1970) Technological aspects of the use of fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoids and of the development of stabilized marketable forms. In Fat-soluble Vitamins (ed. R.A. Morton ), Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 113–59.Google Scholar
  43. Kobayashi, T., Okano, T. and Takeuchi, A. (1986) The determination of vitamin D in foods and feeds using high-performance liquid chromatography. J. Micronutr. Anal., 2, 1–24.Google Scholar
  44. Kodicek, E. and Lawson, D.E.M. (1967) Vitamin D. In The Vitamins. Chemistry, Physiology, Pathology, Methods, 2nd edn, Vol. VI (eds P. György and W.N. Pearson ), Academic Press, New York, pp. 211–44.Google Scholar
  45. Konings, E.J.M. (1994) Estimation of vitamin D in baby foods with liquid chromatography. Neth. Milk Dairy J., 48, 31–9.Google Scholar
  46. Koshy, K.T. and VanDerSlik, A.L. (1977) High-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in the bovine liver, kidney, and muscle. J. Agric. Food Chem., 25, 1246–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Koshy, K.T. and VanDerSlik, A.L. (1979) 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol in cow milk as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. J. Agric. Food Chem., 27, 650–2.Google Scholar
  48. Krampitz, G. (1980) Vitamin D in Animal Nutrition, F. Hofmann-La Roche and Co. Ltd, Basle, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  49. Kurmann, A. and Indyk, H. (1994) The endogenous vitamin D content of bovine milk: influence of season. Food Chem., 50, 75–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kutsky, R.J. (1973) Handbook of Vitamins and Hormones, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.Google Scholar
  51. Landen, W.O. Jr (1985) Liquid chromatographic determination of vitamins D2 and D3 in fortified milk and infant formulas. J. Ass. Off Analyt. Chem., 68, 183–7.Google Scholar
  52. Lawson, E. (1985) Vitamin D. In Fat-Soluble Vitamins. Their Biochemistry and Applications (ed. A.T. Diplock ), Heinemann, London, pp. 76–153.Google Scholar
  53. Le Boulch, N., Cancela, L. and Miravet, L. (1982) Cholecalciferol sulfate identification in human milk by HPLC. Steroids, 39, 391–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Maislos, M., Silver, J. and Fainaru, M. (1981) Intestinal absorption of vitamin D sterols: differential absorption into lymph and portal blood in the rat. Gastroenterology, 80, 1528–34.Google Scholar
  55. Margarine Regulations (1967) Statutory Instrument, No. 1867, as amended, H.M. Stationery Office, London.Google Scholar
  56. Mattila, P., Piironen, V., Uusi-Rauva, E. and Koivistoinen, P. (1993) Determination of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol content in egg yolk by HPLC. J. Food Comp. Anal., 6, 250–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mattila, P.H., Piironen, V.I., Uusi-Rauva, E.J. and Koivistoinen, P.E. (1995) Contents of cholecalciferol, ergocalciferol, and their 25-hydroxylated metabolites in milk products and raw meat and liver as determined by HPLC. J. Agric Food Chem., 43, 2394–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Miller, D.R. and Hayes, K.C. (1982) Vitamin excess and toxicity. In Nutritional Toxicology, Vol. I (ed. J.N. Hathcock ), Academic Press, New York, pp. 81–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mulder, F.J., de Vries, E.J. and Borsje, B. (1971) Chemical analysis of vitamin D in concentrates and its problems. 12. Analysis of fat-soluble vitamins. J. Ass. Off. Analyt. Chem., 54, 1168–74.Google Scholar
  60. Muniz, J.F., Wehr, C.T. and Wehr, H.M. (1982) Reverse phase liquid chromatographic determination of vitamins D2 and D3 in milk. J. Ass. Off. Analyt. Chem., 65, 791–7.Google Scholar
  61. Nair, P.P. (1966) Quantitative methods for the study of vitamin D. In Advances in Lipid Research, Vol. IV (eds R. Paoletti and D. Kritchevsky), Academic Press, New York, pp. 227–56.Google Scholar
  62. Need, A.G., Morris, H.A., Horowitz, M. and Nordin, B.E.C. (1993) Effects of skin thickness, age, body fat, and sunlight on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 58, 882–5.Google Scholar
  63. Okano, T., Kuroda, E., Nakao, H. et al. (1986) Lack of evidence for existence of vitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D sulfates in human breast and cow’s milk. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol., 32, 449–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. O’Keefe, S.F. and Murphy, P.A. (1988) Rapid determination of vitamin D in fortified skim milk. J. Chromat., 445, 305–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Omaye, S.T. (1984) Safety of megavitamin therapy. In Nutritional and Toxicological Aspects of Food Safety (ed. M. Friedman ), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 169–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Onisko, B.L., Esvelt, R.P., Schnoes, H.K. and DeLuca, H.F. (1980) Metabolites of 1x,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in rat bile. Biochemistry, 19, 4124–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Parrish, D.B. (1979) Determination of vitamin D in foods: a review. CRC Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 12, 29–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Passmore, R. and Eastwood, M.A. (1986) Davidson and Passmore Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 8th edn, Churchill Livingstone, New York.Google Scholar
  69. Reed, J.S., Meredith, S.C., Nemchausky, B.A. et al. (1980) Bone disease in primary biliary cirrhosis: reversal of osteomalacia with oral 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Gastroenterology, 78, 512–7.Google Scholar
  70. Reeve, L.E., Deluca, H.F. and Schnoes, H.K. (1981) Synthesis and biological activity of vitamin D3-sulfate. J. Biol. Chem., 256, 823–6.Google Scholar
  71. Reeve, L.E., Jorgensen, N.A. and DeLuca, H.F. (1982) Vitamin D compounds in cows’ milk. J. Nutr. 112, 667–72.Google Scholar
  72. Renken, S.A. and Warthesen, J.J. (1993) Vitamin D stability in milk. J. Food Sci., 58, 552–6, 566.Google Scholar
  73. Reynolds, S.L. and Judd, H.J. (1984) Rapid procedure for the determination of vitamins A and D in fortified skimmed milk powder using high-performance liquid chromatography. Analyst, Lond., 109, 489–92.Google Scholar
  74. Rychener, M. and Walter, P. (1985) A simplified and improved determination of vitamin D in fat, oil and margarine by HPLC. Mitt. Gebiete Lebensm. Hyg., 76, 112–24.Google Scholar
  75. Schachter, D., Finkelstein, J.D. and Kowarski, S. (1964) Metabolism of vitamin D. I. Preparation of radioactive vitamin D and its intestinal absorption in the rat. J. Clin. Invest., 43, 787–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Sertl, D.C. and Molitor, B.E. (1985) Liquid chromatographic determination of vitamin D in milk and infant formula. J. Ass. Off. Analyt. Chem., 68, 177–82.Google Scholar
  77. Sitrin, M.D. and Bengoa, J.M. (1987) Intestinal absorption of cholecalciferol and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in chronic cholestatic liver disease. Am. J. Clin. Nutr.,46 1011–5.Google Scholar
  78. Sitrin, M.D., Pollack, K.L., Bolt, M.J.G. and Rosenberg, I.H. (1982) Comparison of vitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D absorption in the rat. Am. J. Physiol., 242, G326–32.Google Scholar
  79. Sivell, L.M., Wenlock, R.W. and Jackson, P.A. (1982) Determination of vitamin D and retinoid activity in eggs by HPLC. Human Nutr. Appl. Nutr., 36A, 430–7.Google Scholar
  80. Sliva, M.G. and Sanders, J.K. (1996) Vitamin D in infant formula and enteral products by liquid chromatography: collaborative study. J. AOAC Int., 79, 73–80.Google Scholar
  81. Sliva, M.G., Green, A.E., Sanders, J.K. et al. (1992) Reversed-phase liquid chromatographic determination of vitamin D in infant formulas and enteral nutritionals. J. Ass. Off. Analyt. Chem., 75, 566–71.Google Scholar
  82. Stamp, T.C.B. (1974) Intestinal absorption of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol. Lancet, II (No. 7873) 121–3.Google Scholar
  83. Thompson, J.N. and Plouffe, L. (1993) Determination of cholecalciferol in meat and fat from livestock fed normal and excessive quantities of vitamin D. Food Chem., 46, 313–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Thompson, J.N., Maxwell, W.B. and L’Abbe, M. (1977) High pressure liquid chromatographic determination of vitamin D in fortified milk. J. Ass. Off. Analyt. Chem., 60, 998–1002.Google Scholar
  85. Thompson, J.N., Hatina, G., Maxwell, W.B. and Duval, S. (1982) High performance liquid chromatographic determination of vitamin D in fortified milks, margarine and infant formulas. J. Ass. Off Analyt. Chem., 65, 624–31.Google Scholar
  86. van den Berg, H. (1997) Bioavailability of vitamin D. Fur. J. Clin. Nutr., 51, Suppl. 1, S76–9.Google Scholar
  87. Vanhaelen-Fastré, R. and Vanhaelen, M. (1981) Separation and determination of the D vitamins by HPLC. In Steroid Analysis by HPLC. Recent Applications (ed. M.P. Kautsky ), Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, pp. 173–251.Google Scholar
  88. Woollard, D.C. (1987) Quality control of the fat-soluble vitamins in the New Zealand dairy industry. Food Technol. Aust., 39, 250–3.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© G.F.M. Ball 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. F. M. Ball
    • 1
  1. 1.Windsor, BerkshireEngland

Personalised recommendations