Advertisement

Physiological aspects of vitamin bioavailability

  • G. F. M. Ball

Abstract

Vitamins are a group of organic compounds which are essential in very small amounts for the normal functioning of the human body. They have widely varying chemical and physiological functions and are broadly distributed in natural food sources. Thirteen vitamins are recognized in human nutrition and these may be conveniently classified, according to their solubility, into two groups. The fat-soluble vitamins are represented by vitamins A, D, E and K; also included are the 50 or so carotenoids that possess varying degrees of vitamin A activity. The water-soluble vitamins comprise vitamin C and the members of the vitamin B group, namely thiamin (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), niacin, vitamin B6, pantothenic acid, biotin, folate and vitamin B12. This simple classification reflects to some extent the bioavailability of the vitamins, as the solubility affects their mode of intestinal absorption and their uptake by tissues. The solubility properties also have a direct bearing on the analytical methods employed in vitamin assays.

Keywords

Bile Salt Basolateral Membrane High Density Lipoprotein Physiological Aspect Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ammerman, C.B. (1995) Methods for estimation of mineral bioavailability. In Bioavailability of Nutrients for Animals. Amino Acids, Minerals, and Vitamins (eds C.B. Ammerman, D.H. Baker and A.J. Lewis ), Academic Press, New York, pp. 83–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anon. (1989) Nutritional Enhancement of Food, IFST Technical Monograph No. 5, Institute of Food Science & Technology (UK), London.Google Scholar
  3. Bailey, L.B., Cerda, J.J. Bloch, B.S. et al. (1984) Effect of age on poly-and monoglutamyl folacin absorption in human subjects. J. Nutr., 114, 1770–6.Google Scholar
  4. Bier, D.M. and Matthews, D.E. (1982) Stable isotope tracer methods for in vivo investigations. Fed. Proc., 41, 2679–85.Google Scholar
  5. Blomhoff, R. and Wake, K. (1991) Perisinusoidal stellate cells of the liver: important roles in retinol metabolism and fibrosis. FASEB, J., 5, 271–7.Google Scholar
  6. Bowman, B.B., McCormick, D.B. and Rosenberg, I.H. (1989) Epithelial transport of water-soluble vitamins. Annu. Rev. Nutr., 9, 187–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Codex Alimentarius Commission (1987) General Principles for the Addition of Essential Nutrients to Foods, Alinorm 87/26, Appendix 5, Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome.Google Scholar
  8. Crane, R.K. (1962) Hypothesis for mechanism of intestinal active transport of sugars. Fed. Proc., 21, 891–5.Google Scholar
  9. Crane, R.K. (1965) Na+-dependent transport in the intestine and other animal tissues. Fed. Proc., 24, 1000–6.Google Scholar
  10. Debnam, E.S. and Sharp, P.A. (1993) Acute and chronic effects of pancreatic glucagon on sugar transport across the brush-border and basolateral membranes of rat jejunal enterocytes. Exp. Physiol., 78, 197–207.Google Scholar
  11. Department of Health (1991) Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the United Kingdom. Report on Health and Social Subjects, No. 41, HM Stationery Office, London.Google Scholar
  12. Diamond, J.M. and Karasov, W.H. (1987) Adaptive regulation of intestinal nutrient transporters. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 84, 2242–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ferraris, R.P. and Diamond, J.M. (1989) Specific regulation of intestinal nutrient transporters by their dietary substrates. Ann. Rev. Physiol., 51, 125–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fordtran, J.S. and Locklear, T.W. (1966) Ionic constituents and osmolality of gastric and small-intestinal fluids after eating. Am. J. Dig. Dis., 11, 503–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Glickman, R.M., Green, P.H.R., Lees, R.S. et al. (1979) Immunofluorescence studies of apolipoprotein B in intestinal mucosa — absence in abetalipoproteinemia. Gastroenterology, 76, 288–92.Google Scholar
  16. Gregory, J.F. III (1988) Recent developments in methods for the assessment of vitamin bioavailability. Food Technol., 42(10), 230,233, 235, 237–8.Google Scholar
  17. Herbert, V. (1990) Development of human folate deficiency. In Folic Acid Metabolism in Health and Disease (eds M.F. Picciano, E.L.R. Stokstad and J.F. Gregory III ), Wiley-Liss, Inc., New York, pp. 195–210.Google Scholar
  18. Herbert, V. and Das, K.C. (1994) Folic acid and vitamin B12. In Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 8th edn, Vol. 1 (eds M.E. Shils, J.A. Olson and M. Shike ), Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, pp. 402–25.Google Scholar
  19. Hopfer, U. (1977) Isolated membrane vesicles as tools for analysis of epithelial transport. Am. J. Physiol., 233, E445–9.Google Scholar
  20. Ito, S. (1969) Structure and function of the glycocalyx. Fed. Proc., 28, 12–25.Google Scholar
  21. Janghorbani, M. and Young, V.R. (1982) Advances in the use of stable isotopes of minerals in human studies. Fed. Proc., 41, 2702–8.Google Scholar
  22. Karasov, W.H. and Diamond, J.M. (1983) Adaptive regulation of sugar and amino acid transport by vertebrate intestine. Am. J. Physiol., 245, G443–62.Google Scholar
  23. Kimmich, G.A. (1981) Intestinal absorption of sugar. In Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract, Vol. 2 (ed. L.R. Johnson ), Raven Press, New York, pp. 1035–61.Google Scholar
  24. Leklem, J. (1986) Bioavailability of vitamins: applications to human nutrition. In Food and Agricultural Research Opportunities to Improve Human Nutrition (eds A.R. Doberenz, J.A. Milner and B.S. Schweigert ), College of Human Resources, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, pp. A56–71.Google Scholar
  25. Lieber, C.S. (1988) The influence of alcohol on nutritional status. Nutr. Rev., 46, 241–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Littell, R.C., Lewis, A.J. and Henry, P.R. (1995) Statistical evaluation of bioavailability assays. In Bioavailability of Nutrients for Animals. Amino Acids, Minerals, and Vitamins (eds C.B. Ammerman, D.H. Baker and A.J. Lewis ), Academic Press, New York, pp. 5–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Murer, H. and Kinne, R. (1980) The use of isolated membrane vesicles to study epithelial transport processes. J. Membrane Biol., 55, 81–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. National Research Council (1989) Recommended Dietary Allowances, 10th edn, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  29. Pajor, A.N., Hirayama, B.A. and Wright, E.M. (1992) Molecular evidence for two renal Na+/glucose cotransporters. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1106, 216–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pietrzik, K. (1985) Concept of borderline vitamin deficiencies. Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res., Suppl. 27, 61–73.Google Scholar
  31. Sabesin, S.M. and Isselbacher, K.J. (1965) Protein synthesis inhibition mechanism for the production of impaired fat absorption. Science, 147, 1149–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Said, H.M., Hollander, D. and Katz, D. (1984) Absorption of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in rat jejunum with intact blood and lymphatic vessels. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 775, 402–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Selhub, J., Dhar, G.J. and Rosenberg, I.H. (1983) Gastrointestinal absorption of folates and antifolates. Pharmac. Ther., 20, 397–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sharp, P.A. and Debnam, E.S. (1994) The role of cyclic AMP in the control of sugar transport across the brush-border and basolateral membranes of rat jejunal enterocytes. Exp. Physiol., 79, 203–14.Google Scholar
  35. Shiau, Y.-F., Fernandez, P., Jackson, M.J. and McMonagle, S. (1985) Mechanisms maintaining a low-pH microclimate in the intestine. Am. J. Physiol., 248, G608–17.Google Scholar
  36. Southgate, D.A.T. (1982) Definitions and terminology of dietary fiber. In Dietary Fiber in Health and Disease (eds G. V. Vahouny and D. Kritchevsky ), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Southgate, D.A.T. (1993) Effects of dietary fibre on the bioavailability of nutrients. In Bioavailability ‘83. Nutritional, Chemical and Food Processing Implications of Nutrient Availability. Conference proceedings, Part 1 (ed. U. Schlemmer), Ettlingen, May 9–12, Bundesforschungsanstalt für Ernährung, pp. 128–37.Google Scholar
  38. Thorens, B., Lodish, H.F. and Brown, D. (1990) Differential localization of two glucose transporter isoforms in rat kidney. Am. J. Physiol., 259, C286–94.Google Scholar
  39. Tso, P. (1994) Intestinal lipid absorption. In Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract, 3rd edn (ed. L.R. Johnson ), Raven Press, New York, pp. 1867–1907.Google Scholar
  40. United States Food and Drug Administration (1987) Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, Nutritional Quality Guidelines for Foods, Part 104. 5, Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  41. Vahouny, G.V. (1982) Dietary fibers and intestinal absorption of lipids. In Dietary Fiber in Health and Disease (eds G. V. Vahouny and D. Kritchevsky ), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 203–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wetterau, J.R., Aggerbeck, L.P., Bouma, M.E. et al. (1992) Absence of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein in individuals with abetalipoproteinemia. Science, 258, 999–1001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wilson, T.H. and Wiseman, G. (1954) The use of sacs of everted small intestine for the study of the transference of substances from the mucosal to the serosal surface. J. Physiol., 123, 116–25.Google Scholar
  44. Yu, B.H. and Kies, C. (1993) Niacin, thiamin, and pantothenic acid bioavailability to humans from maize bran as affected by milling and particle size. Plant Foods Human Nutr., 43, 87–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© G.F.M. Ball 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. F. M. Ball
    • 1
  1. 1.Windsor, BerkshireEngland

Personalised recommendations