Parents have a key role in early intervention for their infants with special needs. There are several reasons for this. First, without active involvement of parents the developmental progress made by children will typically be reduced. Second, unless the intervention has some impact on parents themselves it is unlikely that gains which the children make will be maintained in the long term (Guralnick and Bennett, 1987). Finally, since the improvement of family functioning as a whole is a goal of early intervention, the needs of parents for support and guidance must be a major consideration (Fewell and Vadasy, 1986).


Parent Involvement Family System Handicapped Child Handicap Child Supportive Counselling 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Baker, B. L. (1984) ‘Intervention with Families with Young, Severely Handicapped Children,’ in J. Blacher (ed.), Severely Handicapped Young Children and Their Families, Academic Press, Orlando.Google Scholar
  2. Berger, N. (1984) ‘Social Network Interventions for Families that have a Handicapped Child,’ in J. C. Hansen (ed.), Families with Handicapped Members, Aspen, Rockville.Google Scholar
  3. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979) The Ecology of Human Development, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  4. Cunningham, C. C. and Davis, H. (1985) Working with Parents, Open University Press, Milton Keynes.Google Scholar
  5. Cunningham, C. C. and Glenn, S. M. (1985) ‘Parent Involvement and Early Intervention,’ in D. Lane and B. Stratford (eds), Current Approaches to Down’s Syndrome, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Eastbourne.Google Scholar
  6. Featherstone, H. (1981) A Difference in the Family, Penguin, Harmondsworth.Google Scholar
  7. Fewell, R. R. and Vadasy, P. F. (eds) (1986) Families of Handicapped Children, Pro-Ed, Austin.Google Scholar
  8. Furneaux, B. (1988) Special Parents, Open University Press, Milton Keynes.Google Scholar
  9. Guralnick, M. J. and Bennett, F. C. (eds) (1987) The Effectiveness of Early Intervention for At-risk and Handicapped Children, Academic Press, Orlando.Google Scholar
  10. Harris, S.L. (1983) Families of the Developmentally Disabled, Pergamon, New York.Google Scholar
  11. Hornby, G. (1982) ‘Meeting the Counselling and Guidance Needs of Parents with Intellectually Handicapped Children,’ Mental Handicap in New Zealand, 6, 8–27.Google Scholar
  12. Hornby, G. (1987) ‘Families with Exceptional Children,’ in D. R. Mitchell and N. N. Singh (eds), Exceptional Children in New Zealand, Dunmore Press, Palmerston North.Google Scholar
  13. Hornby, G. (1988) ‘Launching Parent to Parent Schemes,’ British Journal of Special Education, 15, (2), 77–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hornby, G. and Murray, R. (1983) ‘Group Programmes for Parents of Children with Various Handicaps,’ Child: Care, Health and Development, 9, 185–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hornby, G., Murray, R., and Jones, R. (1987) ‘Establishing a Parent to Parent Service,’ Child: Care, Health and Development, 13, 277–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hornby, G. and Singh, N.N. (1982) ‘Reflective Group Counselling for Parents of Mentally Retarded Children,’ British Journal of Mental Subnormality, 28, 71–76.Google Scholar
  17. Hornby, G. and Singh, N. N. (1983) ‘Group Training for Parents of Mentally Retarded Children,’ Child: Care, Health and Development, 9, 199–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kroth, R. L. (1985) Communicating with Parents of Exceptional Children (2nd ed.), Love, Denver.Google Scholar
  19. Lombana, J. H. (1983) Home-school Partnerships, Grune Stratton, New York.Google Scholar
  20. Luterman, D. (1979) Counselling Parents of Hearing Impaired Children, Little Brown, New York.Google Scholar
  21. Max, L. (1985) ‘Parents’ Views of Provisions, Services and Research,’ in N. N. Singh and K. N. Wilton (eds), Mental Retardation in New Zealand, Whitcoulls, Christchurch.Google Scholar
  22. McConkey, R. (1985) Working with Parents, Croom Helm, London. Michaelis, C. T. (1980) Home and School Partnership in Exceptional Education, Aspen, Rockville.Google Scholar
  23. Minuchin, S. (1974) Families and Family Therapy, Harvard University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  24. Mitchell, D. R. (1985) ‘Guidance Needs and Counselling of Parents of Persons with Intellectual Handicaps,’ in N. N. Singh and K. M. Wilton (eds), Mental Retardation in New Zealand, Whitcoulls, Christchurch.Google Scholar
  25. Mittler, P. and McConachie, H. (eds) (1983) Parents, Professionals and Mentally Handicapped People, Croom Helm, London.Google Scholar
  26. Olshansky, S. (1962) ‘Chronic Sorrow: A Response to Having a Mentally Defective Child,’ Social Casework, 43, 190–193.Google Scholar
  27. Rogers, C. R. (1980) A Way of Being, Houghton Mifflin, Boston.Google Scholar
  28. Sameroff, A. J. and Chandler, M. J. (1975) ‘Reproductive Risk and the Continuum of Caretaking Casualty,’ in F. D. Horowitz (ed.), Review of Child Development Research, (Vol. 4), University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  29. Seligman, M. (1979) Strategies for Helping Parents of Exceptional Children, Free Press, New York.Google Scholar
  30. Seligman, M. (ed) (1983) The Family with a Handicapped Child, Grune and Stratton, New York.Google Scholar
  31. Simpson, R. L. (1982) Conferencing Parents with Exceptional Children, Aspen, Rockville.Google Scholar
  32. Topping, K. J. (1986) Parents as Educators, Croom Helm, London. Turnbull, A. P., Summers, J. A. and Brotherson, M. J. (1984) Working with Families with Disabled Members, University of Kansas, Kansas.Google Scholar
  33. Turnbull, A. P. and Turnbull, H. R. (1986) Families, Professionals and Exceptionality, Merrill, Columbus.Google Scholar
  34. Webster, E. J. (1977) Counselling with Parents of Handicapped Children, Crune & Stratton, New York.Google Scholar
  35. White, M. and Cameron, R. J. (eds) (1988) Portage: Progress, Problems and Possibilities, NFER-Nelson, Windsor.Google Scholar
  36. Wikler, L., Wasow, M., and Hatfield, E. (1981) ‘Chronic Sorrow Revisited,’ American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 51, 63–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wright, J. S., Granger, R. D. and Sameroff, A. J. (1984) ‘Parental Acceptance and Developmental Handicap,’ in J. Blacher (ed.), Severely Handicapped Young Children and Their Families, Academic Press, Orlando.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© David Mitchell and Roy I. Brown 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Garry Hornby

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations