Advertisement

Nonvolatile Foreign Additives on the Solid Surface

  • S. Roy Morrison
Chapter
  • 213 Downloads

Abstract

In this chapter we will discuss foreign surface species which, at the temperatures of interest, are nonvolatile, and which, under the conditions of the experiment, are not removed by chemical interaction. Such species can be accidental impurities or can be intentionally added to provide some control or function on the surface. They can be in the form of a low concentration of atoms present in less than a monolayer on the surface, perhaps on particularly active surface sites, or they can be in the form of a thin film of a second phase, but most often they are in the form of small crystallites (“clusters”) deposited out of solution. Clusters are particles consisting of a few to 100 atoms, and, .gas will be discussed, they have unique chemical and, undoubtedly, unique physical properties. Primarily we will discuss their deposition and properties as a surface additive, but we also will discuss the recent work wherein free clusters are generated.

Keywords

Solid Surface Fermi Energy Corrosion Inhibitor Redox Couple Lewis Base 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    D. R. Frank!, J. Electrochem. Soc. 109, 238 (1962).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    P. J. Boddy and W. H. Brattain, J. Electrochem. Soc. 109, 812 (1962).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    S. R. Morrison, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 14, 214 (1960).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    S. R. Morrison, J. Vac. Sci. Technol 7, 84 (1969).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    S. R. Morrison, Surf. Sci. 27, 586 (1971).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. R. Anderson, R. J. MacDonald, and Y. Shimoyama, J. Catal. 20, 147 (1971).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    D. Venus, D. A. Hensley, and L. L. Kesmodel, Surf. Sci. 199, 391 (1988).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    K. Shimazu, K. Uosaki, H. Kita, and Y. Notasaka, J. Electroanal. Chem. 256, 481 (1988).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    G. C. Bond, Plat. Met. Rev. 19, 126 (1975).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. T. Yates and C. W. Garland, J. Phys. Chem. 65, 617 (1961).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    R. van Hardeveld and F. Hartog, Adv. Catal. 22, 75 (1972).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    V. Haensel, U. S. Patent No. 2, 566, 521 (1949), Alumina Platinum Oxysulfide and Its Preparation.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    L. Heard and M. J. Herder, U.S. Patent No. 2, 659, 701 (1953), Solubilized Platinum Sulfide Reforming Catalyst.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    E. S. Zhmud, V. S. Boronin, and O. M. Poltorak, Russ. J. Phys. Chem. 39, 431 (1965).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    O. M. Poltorak and V. S. Boronin, Russ. J. Phys. Chem. 39, 781 (1965).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    H. A. Benesi and R. M. Curtis, J. Catal. 10, 328 (1968).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    K. Morikawa, T. Shirasaki, and M. Okada, Adv. Catal. 20 97 (1969.).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yu. I. Yerkamov, B. N. Kuznetsov, and Yu. A. Rynden, Reaction Kinet. Catal. Lett. 2, 151 (1975).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    T. E. Whyte, Jr., Catal. Rev. 8, 117 (1973).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    H. Chon, R. A. Fisher, E. Tomeszko, and J. G. Aston, in Proc. 2nd Int. Cong. on Catalysis, p. 217, Paris, 1961.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    H. L. Gruber, J. Phys. Chem. 66, 48 (1962).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    J. E. Benson and M. Boudart, J. Catal. 4, 704 (1965).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    G. R. Wilson and W. K. Hall, J. Catal. 24, 306 (1972).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    N. Giordano and E. Moretti, J. Catal. 18, 228 (1970).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    P. Wentrcek, K. Kimoto, and H. Wise, J. Catal. 33, 279 (1974); 36, 247 (1975).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    J. Fred, J. Catal. 25, 139, 149 (1972).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    J. W. Sprys, L. Bartosiewicz, R. McCune, and H. K. Plummer, J. Catal. 39, 91 (1975).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    S. E. Wanke and P. C. Flynn, Catal. Rev. Sci. Eng. 12, 93 (1975).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    A. D. Gates and J. L. Robins, Surf Sci. 194, 13 (1988).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    R. A. Herrmann, J. Phys. Chem. 65, 2189 (1960).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    R. T. K. Baker, C. Thomas, and R. B. Thomas, J. Catal. 38, 510 (1975).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    J. W. Geus, Vol. 1 of Chemisorption and Reactions on Metallic Films, edited by J. R. Anderson ( Academic Press, New York, 1971 ).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    R. Klein, Surf Sci. 29, 309 (1972).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    R. Gomer, R. Wortman, and R. Lundy, J. Chem. Phys. 26, 1147 (1957).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    H. P. Bonzel, CRC Crit. Rev. Solid State Sci. 6, 171 (1976).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    D. W. Bassett, Surf. Sci. 53, 74 (1975).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    K. Tanaka and K. Miyahara, J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 1973, 877 (1973).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    J. C. Slater and K. H. Johnson, Phys. Today 27, 34 (1974).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    R. D. Jones, P. J. Jennings, and G. S. Painter, Surf. Sci. 53, 409 (1975).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    R. C. Baetzold, Comment Solid State Phys. 4, 62 (1972).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    E. G. Schlosser, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 73, 358 (1969).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    W. Romanowski, Surf Sci. 18, 373 (1969).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    E. Ruckenstein, J. Catal. 35, 441 (1974).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    J. H. Sinfelt, J. Catal. 29, 308 (1973).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    D. B. Tanner and A. J. Sievers, Phys. Rev. B11, 1330 (1975).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    R. van Hardeveld and A. van Montfoort, Surf Sci. 4, 396 (1966); 17, 90 (1969).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    J. J. Ostermaier, J. R. Katzer, and W. H. Manogue, J. Catal. 33, 457 (1974).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    J. C. Wu and P. Harriott, J. Catal. 39, 395 (1975).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    M. E. Geusic, M. D. Morse, S. C. O’Brian, and R. E. Smalley, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 56, 2123 (1985).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    J. Riley, E. K. Parks, C.-R. Mao, L. G. Pobo, and S. Wexler, J. Phys. Chem. 86, 3911 (1982).Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    M. D. Morse, M. E. Geusic, J. R. Hearth, and R. E. Smalley, J. Chem. Phys. 83, 2293 (1985).Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    J. J. Ramaden, S. E. Webber, and M. Graetzel, J. Phys. Chem. 89, 2740 (1985).Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    L. Brus, J. Phys. Chem. 90, 2555 (1986).Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Y. Wang and N. Herron, J. Phys. Chem. 91, 257 (1987).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    K. J. Klabunde, D. Ralston, R. Zoellener, H. Hattori, and Y. Tanaka, J. Catal. 55, 213 (1978).Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    B. K. Miremadi and S. R. Morrison, J. Catal. 103, 334 (1987).Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    S. R. Morrison, Surf. Sci. 10, 459 (1968).Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    J.-P. Bonnelle and M. Guelton, Surf. Sci. 27, 375 (1971).Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    M. Green and M. J. Lee, in Vol. 1 of Solid State Surface Science, edited by M. Green ( Marcel Dekker, New York, 1969 ).Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    S. R. Morrison, Surf. Sci. 15, 363 (1969).Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    J. A. Jackson, J. R. Szedon, and T. A. Temofonte, J. Electrochem. Soc. 119, 1424 (1972).Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    S. R. Morrison, Surf Sci. 15, 363 (1969).Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    A. G. Shastri and J. Schwank, Appl. Surf. Sci. 29, 341 (1987).Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    K. Tanabe, T. Sumiyoshi, K. Shibata, T. Kiyoura, and J. Kitagawa, Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 47, 1064 (1974).Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    K. Tanabe, Solid Acids and Bases ( Academic Press, New York, 1970 ).Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    K. Shibata, T. Kiyoura, J. Kitagawa, T. Sumiyoshi, and K. Tanabe, Bull Chem. Soc. Jpn. 46, 2985 (1973).Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    M. L. Hair and W. Hertl, J. Phys. Chem. 77, 1965 (1973).Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    S. Szczepanska and S. Malinowski, J. Catal. 27, 1 (1972).Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    See, for example R. Snel, Catal. Rev.-Sci. Eng. 29, 361 (1977); 29, 371 (1977).Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    R. J. Tedeschi, Corrosion 31, 130 (1975).Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    W. W. Arbogast, Jr., Corrosion 30, 179 (1974).Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    R. Walker, Corrosion 31, 97 (1975); 29, 290 (1973).Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    P. Fugassi and E. G. Haney, in Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. on Titanium, 1972; Corrosion 29, 140 (1973).Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    S. R. Morrison, J. Vac. Sci. Technol 7, 84 (1970).Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    K. M. Sancier, Surf. Sci. 21, 1 (1970).Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    I. N. Putilova, S. A. Balezin, and V. P. Barannik, Metallic Corrosion Inhibitors ( Pergamon Press, New York, 1960 ).Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    M. Guelton J.-P. Bonnelle, and J. P. Beaufils, J. Chico. Phys. 7–8, 1122 (1971).Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    J.-P. Bonnelle, J. M. Balois, and J. P. Beaufils, J. Chim. Phys. 6, 1045 (1972).Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    P. Descamps, M. Guelton, J.-P. Bonnelle, and J. P. Beaufils, C.R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 279c, 813 (1974).Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    S. R. Morrison and J.-P. Bonnelle, J. Catal. 25, 416 (1972).Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    K. Prelec and Th. Sluyters, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 1451 (1973).Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    L. Holbrook and H. Wise, J. Catal. 20, 367 (1971).Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    S. R. Morrison, J. Catal. 34, 462 (1974).Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    A. N. Webb, Ind. Eng. Chem. 49, 261 (1957).Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    H. R. Gerberich, F. E. Lutinski, and W. K. Hall, J. Catal. 6, 209 (1966).Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    H. Pines, Adv. Catal. 12, 117 (1960).Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    N. W. Cant and L. H. Little, Can. J. Chem. 43, 1252 (1965).Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    A. V. Kiselev, Discuss. Faraday Soc. 52, 14 (1971).Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    F. Boccuzzi, A. Chiorino, and G. Ghiotti, Surf. Sci. 209, 77 (1989).Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    M. A. Vannice and R. L. Garten, J. Catal. 56, 236 (1979).Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    G. B. Hoflund, A. L. Grogan, Jr., and D. A. Asbury, J. Celial. 109, 226 (1988).Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    R. T. K. Baker and J. A. Horsley, Science 211, 1121 (1981).Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    S. Khoobiar, J. Phys. Chem. 68, 411 (1964).Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    D. Bianchi, G. E. E. Garder, G. M. Pajonk, and S. J. Teichner, J. Catal. 38, 135 (1975).Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    K. M. Sancier, J. Catal. 20, 106 (1971).Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    G. E. Batley, A. Ekstrom, and D. A. Johnson, J. Catal. 36, 285 (1975).Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    F. Boccuzzi, G. Ghiotti, and A. Chiorino, Surf Sci. 183, 2285 (1987).Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    P. A. Sermon and G. C. Bond, Catal. Rev. 8, 211 (1973).Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    W. C. Conner, Jr., G. M. Pajonk, and S. J. Teichner, Adv. Catal. 34, 1 (1986).Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    S. R. Morrison, Proc. 2nd Int. Meeting on Chemical Sensors, Bordeaux (1986); Sensors and Actuators 12, 425 (1987).Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    N. R. Armstrong and V. R. Shepard, J. Phys. Chem. 85, 2965 (1981).Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    G. M. Schwab, Surf. Sci. 13, 198 (1969).Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    S. S. Kilchitskaya and V. I. Strikha, Surf. Sci. 38, 149 (1973).Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    A. B. Kuper, Surf. Sci. 13, 172 (1969).Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    S. Bacyaroy and P. Mark, Surf. Sci. 30, 53 (1972).Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    P. Mark, Surf. Sci. 25, 192 (1971).Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    V. F. Kiselev, S. N. Kozlov, Yu. F. Novotskii-Vlasov, and R. V. Pruknikov, Surf. Sci. 11, 111 (1968).Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    A. N. Frumkin, ed., Surface Properties of Semiconductors (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1962) (several papers on the real surface).Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    S. N. Kozlov, V. F. Kiselev, and Yu. F. Novototskii-Vaslov, Surf. Sci. 28, 395 (1971).Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    J. Lagowski, I. Baltos, and H. Gatos, Surf. Sci. 40, 216 (1973).Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    J. Lagowski, E. S. Sproles, Jr., and H. Gatos, Surf. Sci. 30 653 (1972) and references therein.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    T. M. Valahas, J. Sochanski, and H. C. Gatos, Surf Sci. 26, 41 (1971).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Roy Morrison
    • 1
  1. 1.Simon Fraser UniversityBurnabyCanada

Personalised recommendations