Advertisement

Ion Transport Mechanisms in Polymer Electrolytes at Normal and High Pressure

  • B.-E. Mellander
  • I. Albinsson
  • J. R. Stevens
Chapter
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSB, volume 286)

Abstract

Most polymeric materials are excellent electrical insulators with conductivities as low as 10−18 S/cm. Nevertheless, both ion and electron conducting polymers have become very active fields of research. A polymer electrolyte is a material which is ionically conducting while the electronic conductivity is negligible. There is a broad current interest in solid polymeric electrolytes for such applications as batteries, electrochromic devices and fuel cells1–2. To obtain an ion conducting polymer, a polymer such as poly(ethylene oxide), PEO, or poly(propylene oxide), PPO, is complexed with a salt, e.g., an alkali metal perchlorate or triflate. The low molecular weight glycols (PEO and PPO with hydroxyl terminations) are often used (PEG and PPG). When the salt is complexed with these polymers, the cations co-ordinate with the ether oxygen atoms; a lithium ion may be co-ordinated to approximately four ether oxygens. But these links are in a dynamic equilibrium (breaking and reforming) permitting the cation to move in the complex in response to a very broad distribution of relaxation times for polymer segment motion. The structural relaxations in the polymer chains are thus coupled to the motion of the ions. It is also generally contended that, in most cases, both the cation and the anion contribute to the conductivity. There is, however, considerable disagreement in the literature as to the role of cations, anions, ion clusters, solvent separated ion pairs, contact ion pairs, salt precipitates, etc., in ion transport, especially related to the measurement of transference, transport and diffusion.

Keywords

Ionic Conductivity Polymer Electrolyte Ether Oxygen Atom Frenkel Defect Schottky Defect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    M.B. Armand, in: “Polymer Electrolyte Reviews 1”, J.R. MacCallum and C.A. Vincent, eds., Elsevier, London (1987), p.275.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    B. Scrosati, in: NATO ASI Séries Vol. 217 “Solid State Micro-batteries”, J.R. Akridge and M. Balkanski, eds., Plenum Press, New York (1990), p.103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    B.-E. Meilander and D. Lazarus, Phys. Rev. B29, 2148 (1984).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    B.-E. Mellander, Phys. Rev. B26, 5886 (1982).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    D.N. Yoon and D. Lazarus, Phys. Rev. B5, 4935 (1972).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    S. Lansiart and M. Beyeler, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 36, 703 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M.B. Armand, J.M. Chabagno and M.J. Duclot, in: “Fast Ion Transport in Solids”, P. Vashishta, J.N. Mundy and G.K. Shenoy, Elsevier-North Holland, New York (1979), p.131.Google Scholar
  8. M.B. Armand, Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 16, 245 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 8.
    G.G. Cameron and M.D. Ingram, in: “Polymer Electrolyte Reviews 2”, J.R. MacCallum and C.A. Vincent, eds., Elsevier, London (1989), p.157.Google Scholar
  10. 9.
    I. Albinsson, B.-E. Mellander and J.R. Stevens, to be published.Google Scholar
  11. 10.
    M.A. Ratner, in: “Polymer Electrolyte Reviews 1”, J.R. MacCallum and C.A. Vincent, eds., Elsevier, London (1987), p.173Google Scholar
  12. M.A. Ratner and D.F. Shriver, Chem. Rev. 88, 109 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. M.A. Ratner and A. Nitzan, Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. 88, 19 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 11.
    B.L. Papke, M.A. Ratner and D.F. Shriver, J. Electrochem. Soc. 129, 1694 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 12.
    J.J. Fontanella, M.C. Wintersgill, J.P. Calame, F.P. Pursei, D.R. Figueroa and C.G. Andeen, Solid State Ionics 9&10, 1139 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 13.
    P. Waiden, Salts Acids and Bases: Electrolytes: Stereochemistry, McGraw-Hill, New York (1929), p.283.Google Scholar
  17. P. Waiden, Z. Physik. Chem. 55, 249 (1906).Google Scholar
  18. 14.
    J.R. Stevens and P. Jacobsson, Can. J. Chem., to be published.Google Scholar
  19. 15.
    S. Schantz, J. Chem. Phys. 94, 6296 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 16.
    I. Albinsson, P. Jacobsson, B.-E. Mellander and J.R. Stevens, to be published.Google Scholar
  21. 17.
    P. Jacobsson, I. Albinsson, B.-E. Mellander and J.R. Stevens, to be published.Google Scholar
  22. 18.
    A.V. Chadwick, J.H. Strange and M.R. Worboys, Solid State Ionics, 9&10, 1155 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 19.
    M.C. Wintersgill, JJ. Fontanella, P.J. Welcher and C.G. Andeen, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 2875 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 20.
    J.J. Fontanella, M.C. Wintersgill, J.P. Calame, M.K. Smith and C.G. Andeen, Solid State Ionics 18&19, 253 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 21.
    J.J. Fontanella, M.C. Wintersgill, M.K. Smith, J. Semancik and C.G. Andeen, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 2665 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 22.
    M.C. Wintersgill, J.J. Fontanella, M.K. Smith, S.G. Greenbaum, K.J. Adamic and C.G. Andeen, Polymer 28, 633 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 23.
    S.G. Greenbaum, Y.S. Pak, K.J. Adamic, M.C. Wintersgill, J.J. Fontanella, D.A. Beam, H.L. Mei and Y. Okamoto, Mol. Cryst., Liq. Cryst. 160, 347 (1988).Google Scholar
  28. 24.
    S.G. Greenbaum, Y.S. Pak, M.C. Wintersgill, J.J. Fontanella, J.W. Schultz and C.G. Andeen, J. Electrochem. Soc. 135, 235 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 25.
    C.A. Angell, L.J. Pollard and W. Strauss, J. Solution Chem. 1, 517 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • B.-E. Mellander
    • 1
  • I. Albinsson
    • 1
  • J. R. Stevens
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsChalmers University of TechnologyGöteborgSweden
  2. 2.Guelph-Waterloo Program for Graduate Work in Physics, Guelph Campus, Department of PhysicsUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada

Personalised recommendations