Advertisement

Disorders of the Female Reproductive System and Developmental Disorders

  • Richard B. Kurzel
Chapter

Abstract

Contrary to popular belief, the adverse effects of environmental chemicals on human reproduction are not a new problem but rather an old one rediscovered. Chemicals and toxins have been used since antiquity as abortifacients. The adverse reproductive effects of workplace exposure have been well documented since the industrial revolution. Careful recording of such events and their sequelae, as well as the results of accidental poisonings, constitutes the clinical core of reproductive toxicology and teratology. Over the years, clinicians have alerted the medical community to the reproductive hazards of toxic exposure. Although this surveillance is now supplemented by epidemiologic and animal studies, there is little doubt that the alert clinician will continue to be among the first to detect the reproductive hazards of toxic exposure. Clearly the aim of such observations is to reduce fetal loss, infant malformation, and infant debility.

Keywords

Spontaneous Abortion Fetal Loss Female Reproductive System Fetal Exposure Toxic Exposure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Allen RW Jr, Ogden B, Bently FL, et al: Fetal hydan-toin syndrome, neuroblastoma, and hemorrhagic disease in a neonate. JAMA 244: 1464, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anderson HA, Lilis R, Daum SM, et al: Household contact asbestos neoplastic risk. Ann NY Acad Sci 271: 311, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baird DD, Wilcox AJ: Cigarette smoking associated with delayed conception. JAMA 253: 2979, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baker EL, Follard DS, Taylor TA, et al: Lead poisoning in children of lead workers: Home contamination with industrial dust. N Engl J Med 296: 260, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baker TG, Neal P: Action of ionizing radiation on the mammalian ovary. In: The Ovary, Vol 3, p 1, Zucker-man S, Weir BJ (eds.), Academic Press, New York, 1977.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Barlow SM, Sullivan FM: Reproductive Hazards of Industrial Chemicals, Academic Press, Orlando, 1982.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Barsotti DA, Marier RJ, Allen J Jr. Reproductive dysfunction in rhesus monkeys exposed to low levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1248). Food Cos-met Toxicol 14: 99, 1976.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Beckman DA, Brent RL: Mechanisms of terato-genesis. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 24: 483, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Beckman L, Nordström S: Occupational and environmental risks in and around a smelter in northern Sweden. IX. Fetal mortality among wives of smelter workers. Hereditas 97: 1, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bellinger D, Leviton A, Waternaux C, et al: Longitudinal analyses of prenatal and postnatal lead exposure and early cognitive development. N Engl J Med 316: 1037, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Biggs R, Rose E: The familial incidence of adrenal hypertrophy and female pseudohermaphroditism. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Emp 54: 369, 1947.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bloom AD (ed.): Guidelines for Studies of Human Populations Exposed to Mutagenic and Reproductive Hazards. March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundations, New York, 1981.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brent RL: The effect of embryonic and fetal exposure to X-ray, microwaves, and ultrasound: Counseling the pregnant and nonpregnant patient about these risks. Semin Oncol 16: 347, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brown NA, Fabro S: The in vitro approach to teratogenicity testing. In: Developmental Toxicology, p 165, Snell K (ed.), Praeger, London, 1982.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bulger WH, Kupfer D: Estrogenic action of DDT analogs. Am J Ind Med 4: 163, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Catz CS, Jaffee SJ: Environmental factors: Pharmacology. In: Prevention of Embryonic, Fetal and Perinatal Disease, Vol 3, p 119, Brent RL, Harris MI (eds.), John E Fogarty International Center for Advanced Study in the Health Sciences, NIH, Bethesda, 1976.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chen PHS, Luo MI, Wong CK, et al: Polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzofurans and quaterphenyls in the toxic rice-bran oil and PCBs in the blood of patients with PCB poisoning in Taiwan. Am J Ind Med 5: 133, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Clemmensen J: Mutagenicity and teratogenicity of vinyl chloride monomers: Epidemiological evidence. Mutat Res 98: 97, 1982.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Committee on the Biologic Effects of Ionizing Radiation, National Research Council: Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation, BIER V, National Academy Press, Washington, 1990.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Committee on Indoor Air Pollutants, National Research Council: Indoor Pollutants, National Academy Press, Washington, 1981.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Committee on Lead in the Environment, National Research Council: Lead in the Human Environment, National Academy Press, Washington, 1980.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Copel J, Bowen F, Bolognese R: Carbon monoxide intoxication in early pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 59(Suppl 6): 265, 1982.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Coulston F, Pocchiari F (eds.): Accidental Exposure to Dioxins, Academic Press, Orlando, 1983.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Council on Scientific Affairs: The Health Effects of “Agent Orange” and Polychlorinated Dioxin Contaminants, American Medical Association, Chicago, 1981.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Council on Scientific Affairs: The Health Effects of “Agent Orange” and Polychlorinated Dioxins Contaminants: An Update, 1984, American Medical Association, Chicago, 1984.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Council on Scientific Affairs: Effects of toxic chemicals on the reproductive system. JAMA 253: 3431, 1985.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Courtney KD: Mouse teratology studies with chlo-rodibenzo-p-dioxins. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 16: 674, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Courtney KD: Prenatal effects of herbicides: Evaluation by the prenatal development index. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 6: 33, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Courtney KD, Moore JA: Tetratology studies with 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2,3,7,8-tetra-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 20: 396, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cutting RT, Phuoc TH, Ballo JM, et al: Congenital malformations, hydatidiform moles in the Republic of Vietnam 1960–1969, US Government Printing Office, Washington, 1970.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Davis JM, Svendsgaard DJ: Lead and child development. Nature 329: 297, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Deknudt GH, Leonard A, Ivanov B: Chromosome aberrations observed in male workers occupationally exposed to lead. Environ Physiol Biochem 3: 132, 1973.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dixon RL: Potential of environmental factors to affect the development of reproductive systems. Fund Appl Toxicol 2: 5, 1982.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dixon RL: Toxic responses of the reproductive system. In: Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology, The Basic Science of Poisons, 3rd ed., p 432, Klaassen CD, Amdur MO, Doull J (eds.), Macmillan, New York, 1986.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Donovan JW: Case-Control Study of Congenital Anomalies and Vietnam Service, Commonwealth Institute of Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia, 1983.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Dowry BJ, Laseter J, Storer J: The transplacental migration and accumulation in blood of volatile organic constituents. Pediatr Res 10: 696, 1976.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Environmental Studies Board, Commission on Natural Resources: Urban Pest Management, National Academy Press, Washington, 1980.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Environmental Teratogen Information Center (ETIC): National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Erickson JD, Mulinare J, McClain PW, et al: Vietnam veteran’s risk for fathering babies with birth defects. JAMA 252: 903, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Eskenazi B, Gaylord L, Bracken MB, et al: In utero exposure to organic solvents and human neuro-development. Dev Med Child Neurol 30: 492, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fabro S (ed.): Paternally induced adverse pregnancy effects. Reprod Toxicol 3: 13, 1984.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Fabro S, Scialli AR: The role of the obstetrician in the prevention and treatment of birth defects. In: Issues and Reviews in Teratology, Vol 3, p 1, Kalter H (ed.), Plenum Press, New York, 1985.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Fabro S, Scialli AR (eds.): Drug and Chemical Action in Pregnancy, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1986.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Fabro S, Shull G, Brown NA: The relative teratogenic index and teratogenic potency: Proposed components of developmental toxicity risk assessment. Teratogen Carcinogen Mutagen 2: 61, 1982.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Fahim MS, Fahim Z, Hall DG: Effects of subtoxic lead levels on pregnant women in the state of Missouri. Res Commun Chem Pharmacol 13: 309, 1976.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Fein GG, Jacobson JL, Jacobson SW, et al: Prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls: Effects on birth size and gestational age. J Pediatr 105: 315, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Felton JS, Kwan TC, Wuebbles BJ, et al: Genetic differences in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism and their effects on oocyte killing in developing mice. In: DOE Symposium Series, Vol 47: Developmental Toxicology of Energy Related Pollutants, p 1526, Mahlum DD, Sikov MR, Hackett PL, et al. (eds.), U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, 1978.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Field B, Kerr C: Herbicide use and the incidence of neural-tube defects. Lancet 1: 1341, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Filler R, Lew KJ: Developmental onset of mixed-function oxidase activity in preimplantation mouse embryos. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78: 6991, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Friedman JM: Does agent orange cause birth defects? Tetratology 29: 193, 1984.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Geliert RJ: Uterotrophic activity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and induction of precocious reproductive aging in neonatally treated female rats. Environ Res 16: 123, 1978.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Giavini R, Prati M, Vismara C: Rabbit teratology study with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Environ Res 27: 74, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Goncharuk GA: Hygiene of women working in the mercury industry. Gig Truda Prof Zabol 21: 17, 1977.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Greenwald P, Barlow JJ, Nasca P, et al: Vaginal cancer after maternal treatment with synthetic estrogens. N Engl J Med 287: 1259, 1971.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hall A: The increasing use of lead as an abortifacient. Br Med J 1: 584, 1905.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hamilton A: Women in Lead Industries, US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, 1919.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hanify JA, Metcalf P, Nobbs CL, et al: Aerial spraying of 2,4,5-T and human birth malformation: An epidemiologic investigation. Science 212: 349, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Heinonen OP, Slone D, Shapiro S: Birth Defects and Drugs in Pregnancy, Publishing Sciences Group, Littleton, MA, 1977.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hemminki K, Frassila E, Vaino H: Spontaneous abortions among female chemical workers in Finland. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 45(2): 123, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hemminki K, Saloneimi I, Luoma T, et al: Transplacental carcinogens and mutagens: Childhood cancer, malformations and abortions as risk factors. J Toxicol Environ Health 6: 1115, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hemminki K, Saloniemi I, Salonen X et al: Childhood cancer and parental occupation in Finland. J Epidemiol Commun Health 35: 11, 1981.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hemminki K, Kyyronen P, Niemi ML, et al: Spontaneous abortions in an industrial community in Finland. Am J Public Health 73: 32, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hemminki K, Sorsa M, Vainio H (eds.): Occupational Hazards and Reproduction, Hemisphere Publishing, Washington, 1985.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Herbst AL, Ulfelder H, Poskanzer DC: Adenocarcinoma of the vagina: Association of maternal stil-bestrol therapy with tumor appearance in young women. N Engl J Med 284: 878, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Highman B, Gaines TB, Schumacher HJ: Retarded development of fetal renal alkaline phosphatase in mice given 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid. J Toxicol Environ Health 2: 1007, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Howe G, Westhoff C, Vessey M, et al: Effects of age, cigarette smoking, and other factors on fertility: Findings in a large prospective study. Br Med J 290: 1697, 1985.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Humble CG, Speizer FE: Polybrominated biphenyls and fetal mortality in Michigan. Am J Public Health 74: 1130, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hunt VR: Work and the Health of Women, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1978.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Hunter A, Thompson D, Evans J: Is there a fetal gasoline syndrome? Teratology 20: 75, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Jick H, Porter J, Morrison AS: Relationship between smoking and age of natural menopause. Lancet 1: 1354, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Juchau MR: Drug biotransformation in the placenta. Pharmacol Ther 8: 501, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Juchau MR: The Biochemical Basis of Chemical Tera-togenesis, Elsevier-North-Holland, New York, 1981.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Juchau MR: The role of the placenta in developmental toxicology. In: Developmental Toxicology, p 189, Snell K (ed.), Praeger, London, 1982.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Juchau MR: Bioactivation in chemical teratogenesis. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 29: 165, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Juchau MR, Faustman-Watts E: Pharmacokinetic considerations in the maternal-placental-fetal unit. Clin Obstet Gynecol 26: 379, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Juchau MR, Chao ST, Omiecinski CJ: Drug metabolism by the human fetus. Clin Pharmacokinet 5: 320, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Karnaofsky DA: Drugs as teratogens in animals and man. Annu Rev Pharmacol 5: 447, 1965.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kharrazi M, Potashnik G, Goldsmith JR: Reproductive effects of dibromochloropropane. Israel J Med Sci 10: 403, 1980.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kimbrough RD, Jensen AA (eds.): Halogenated Biphenyls, Terphenyl, Naphthalene, Dibenzodioxins and Related Products, 2nd ed., Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1989.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kleihues P: Developmental carcinogenicity. In: Developmental Toxicology, p 211, Snell K (ed.), Praeger, London, 1982.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kleihues R, Lantos PL, Magee PN: Chemical carcinogenesis in the nervous system. Int Rev Exp Pathol 15: 153, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Kucera J: Exposure to fat solvents: A possible cause of sacral agenesis in man. J Pediatr 72: 857, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kunstadter P: A Study of Herbicides and Birth Defects in the Republic of Vietnam: An Analysis of Hospital Records, National Academy Press, Washington, 1982.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Kuratsune M, Shapiro RE (eds.): PCB Poisoning in Japan and Taiwan, Alan R Liss, New York, 1984.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Kuratsune M, Yoshimura T, Matsuzaka J, et al: Epidemiologic study of Yusho, a poisoning caused by ingestion of rice bran oil contaminated with a commercial brand of polychlorinated biphenyls. Environ Health Perspect 1: 119, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Kurzel RB: Substance abuse in pregnancy. In: The Problem Oriented Medical Record for High Risk Obstetrics, p 76, Cetrulo CL, Sbara A (eds.), Plenum Press, New York, 1984.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Lancranjan I, Popescu H, Gavanescu O, et al: Reproductive ability of workmen occupationally exposed to lead. Arch Environ Health 30: 396, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Lathrop GD, Wolfe WH, Albanese RA, et al: Project Ranch Hand II: An Epidemiologic Investigation of Health Effects in Air Force Personnel Following Exposure to Herbicides: Baseline Morbidity Study Results, US Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, Aerospace Medical Division, Brooks Air Force Base, San Antonio, 1983.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Longo LD: The biological effects of carbon monoxide on the pregnant woman, fetus and newborn infant. Am J Obstet Gynecol 129: 69, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    MacMahon B: Prenatal X-ray exposure and twins. N Engl J Med 312: 576, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    MacMahon B: Some recent issues in low-exposure radiation epidemiology. Environ Health Perspect 81: 131, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Mastrolacovo P, Spagnolo A, Marni E, et al: Birth defects in the Seveso area after TODD contamination. JAMA 259: 1668, 1988.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Masuda Y, Yoshimura H: Polychlorinated biphenyls and dibenzofurans in patients with Yusho and their toxicological significance: A review. Am J Ind Med 5: 32, 1984.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Mattison DR: Difference in sensitivity of rat and mouse primordial oocyte to destruction by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Chem Biol Interact 28: 133, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Mattison DR: Effects of biologically foreign compounds on reproduction. In: Drugs During Pregnancy: Clinical Perspective, p 101, Abdul-Karim RW (ed.), George F Stickely, Philadelphia, 1981.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Mattison DR: The mechanisms of action of reproductive toxins. Am J Ind Med 4: 65, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Mattison DR: Ovarian toxicity: Effects on sexual maturation. In: Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Metals, p 317, Clarkson T, Nordberg G, and Sager P, Plenum Press, New York, 1983.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Mattison DR: Clinical manifestations of ovarian toxicity. In: Reproductive Toxicology, p 109, Dixon RL (ed.), Raven Press, New York, 1985.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Mattison DR, Gates AH, Leonard A, et al: Reproductive and developmental toxicity of metals: Female reproductive system. In: Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Metals, p 41, Clarkson T, Nordberg G, Sager P (eds.), Plenum Press, New York, 1983.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    McNulty WP: Chronic toxicity of TCDD for rhesus macques. Food Cosmet Toxicol 19(1): 57, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Merson MH, Kirkpatrick RL: Reproductive performance of captive white-footed mice fed a PCB. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 16: 392, 1976.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Miller RK: Perinatal toxicology: Its recognition and fundamentals. Am J Ind Med 4: 205, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Miller RW: Areawide chemical contamination: Lessons from case histories. JAMA 245: 1548, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Miller RW, Mulvihill JJ: Small head size after atomic radiation. Teratology 14: 355, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Mishonova VN, Stepanova PA, Zarudin W: Characteristics of the course of pregnancy and parturition in women occupationally exposed to low concentrations of metallic mercury vapors. Gig Truda Prof Zabol 24: 21, 1980.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Mole RH: Irradiation of the embryo and fetus. Br J Radiol 60: 17, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Murray FJ, Smith FA, Nitschke KD, et al: Three-generation reproduction study of rats given 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in the diet. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 50: 241, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Mushak P, Davis JM, Crocetti AF, et al: Prenatal and postnatal effects of low-level lead exposure: integrated summary of a report to the US congress on childhood lead poisoning. Environ Res 50: 11, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Napalkov NP, Rice JM, Tomatis L, et al. (eds.): Perinatal and Multigeneration Carcinogenesis. IARC Scientific Publication No 96, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, 1989.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    National Foundation/March of Dimes: Facts, National Foundation, New York, 1975.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Nebert DW, Merker HJ, Kohler E, et al: Biochemical aspects of teratology. In: Advances in the Biosciences, Vol 6, p 575, Raspe G (ed.), Peragamon Press, London, 1970.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Nebert DW, Eiashoff JD, Wilcox KR: Possible effect of neonatal polybrominated biphenyl exposure on the developmental abilities of children. Am J Public Health 73: 286, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Needelman HL: The neurotoxic, teratogenic and behavioral teratogen effects of lead at low dose: A paradigm for transplacental toxicants. In: Transplacental Effects on Fetal Health, p 279, Scarpelli DG, Migaki G (eds.), Alan R Liss, New York, 1989.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Needleman HL, Rabinowitz M, Leviton A, et al: The relationship between prenatal exposure to lead and congenital anomalies. JAMA 251: 2956, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Nelson CJ, Holson JF, Green HG, et al: Retrospective study of the relationship between agricultural use of 2,4,5-T and cleft palate occurrence in Arkansas. Teratology 19: 377, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Neubert D, Dillmann I: Embryotoxic effects of mice treated with 2, 4, 5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Arch Pharmacol 272: 243, 1972.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Neubert DW, Zens P, Rothenwaller A, et al: A survey of the embryotoxic effects of TCDD in mammalian species. Environ Health Perspect 5: 67, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    New DAT: Techniques for assessment of teratologic effects: Embryo culture. Environ Health Perspect 18: 105, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Nisbet ICT, Karch NJ: Chemical Hazards to Human Reproduction, Noyes Data Corporation, Park Ridge, New Jersey, 1983.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Nishigaka S, Harada M: Methylmercury and selenium in umbilical cords of inhabitants of the Minamata area. Nature 258: 324, 1975.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Nora JJ, Nora AH, Sommerville RJ, et al: Maternal exposure potential teratogens. JAMA 202: 1065, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Nordenson I, Beckman G, Beckman L, et al: Occupational and environmental risks in and around a smelter in northern Sweden: IV Chromosomal aberrations in workers exposed to lead. Hereditas 88: 263, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Nordstrom S, Beckman L, Nordenson I: Occupational and environmental risks in and around a smelter in northern Sweden: I. Variations in birth weight. Hereditas 88: 43, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Nordstrom S, Beckman L, Nordenson I: Occupational and environmental risks in and around a smelter in northern Sweden: III. Frequencies of spontaneous abortion. Hereditas 88: 51, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Nordstrom S, Beckman L, Nordenson I: Occupational and environmental risks in and around a smelter in northern Sweden: V Spontaneous abortion among female employees and decreased birth weight in their offspring. Hereditas 90: 291, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Nordström S, Beckman L, Nordenson I: Occupational and environmental risks in and around a smelter in northern Sweden: VI. Congenital malformations. Hereditas 90: 297, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Ogi D, Hamada A: Case reports on fetal deaths and malformation of extremities probably related to in secticide poisoning. J Jpn Obstet Gynecol Soc 17: 569, 1965.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Oliver T: A lecture on lead poisoning and race. Br Med J 1: 1096, 1911.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Palmisano P, Sneed R, Cassady G: Untaxed whiskey and fetal lead exposure. J Pediatr 75: 869, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Paul M, Himmelstein J: Reproductive hazards in the workplace: What the practitioner needs to know about chemical exposure. Obstet Gynecol 71: 921, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Pelkonen O: Biotransformation of xenobiotics in the fetus. Pharmacol Ther 10: 261, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Pelkonen O: Environmental influences on human fetal and placental xenobiotic metabolism. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 18: 17, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Pelkonen O: The differentiation of drug metabolism in relation to developmental toxicology. In: Developmental Toxicology, p 167, Snell K (ed.), Praeger, London, 1982.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Pruett JG, Winslow SG: Health Effects of Environmental Chemicals on the Adult Human Reproductive System. A Selected Bibliography with Abstracts, 1963–1981. FASEB Special Publication NLM/TIRC-82/1 FASEB, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD, 1982.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Rice J: Effects of prenatal exposure to chemical carcinogens and methods for their detection. In: Developmental Toxicology, p 191, Kimmel CA, Buelke-Sam J (eds.), Raven Press, New York, 1981.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Rogan WJ, Bagniewska A, Damstra T: Pollutants in breast milk. N Engl J Med 302: 1450, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Rogan WJ, Gladen BC, McKinney JD, et al: Poly-chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE) in human milk: Effects of maternal factors and previous lactation. Am J Public Health 76: 172, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Rogan WJ, Gladen BC, Hung KL, et al: Congenital poisoning by polychlorinated biphenyls and their contaminants in Taiwan. Science 241: 334, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Rylander R, Vesterlund J: Carbon monoxide criteria effects on the fetus. Scand J Work Environ Health 7: 25, 1981.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Sanderson CA, Rogers LJ: 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy-acetic acid causes behavioral effects in chickens at environmentally relevant doses. Science 211: 593, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Savage EP: National study to determine levels of chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides in human milk, 1975–1976, and supplementary report to the national milk study: 1975–1976, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA, 1977.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Schardein JL: Chemically Induced Birth Defects, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1985.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Schwanitz G, Lehnert G, Gebhart E: Chromosomal injury due to occupational lead poisoning. Ger Med Month 15: 738, 1970.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Schwartz EM, Rae WA: Effect of polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) on developmental abilities in young children. Am J Public Health 73: 277, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Seagull EAW: Developmental abilities of children exposed to polybrominated biphenyls (PBB). Am J Public Health 73: 281, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Shepard TH: Counseling pregnant women exposed to potentially harmful agents during pregnancy. Clin Obstet Gynecol 26(2): 478, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Shepard TH: Catalog of teratogenic agents, 7th ed., The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1992.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Shum S, Jensen NM, Nebert DM: The murine Ah locus: in uterotoxicity and teratogenesis associated with genetic differences in benzo[a]pyrene metabolism. Teratology 20: 365, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Smith MA, Grant LD, Sors AI (eds.): Lead Exposure and Child Development, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1989.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Soyka LF, Joffe JM: Male mediated drug effects on offspring. In: Drug and Chemical Risks to the Fetus and Newborn, p 49, Schwarz RH, Yaffe SJ (eds.), Alan R Liss, New York, 1980.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Sparschu GL, Dunn FL, Rowe VK: Study of the teratogenicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the rat. Food Cosmet Toxicol 9: 405, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Spence AA, Cohen EN, Brown BW, et al: Occupational hazards for operating room-based physicians: Analysis of data from the United States and United Kingdom. JAMA 238: 955, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Speroff L, Glass RH, Kase NG (eds): Clinical Gynecologic Endocrinology and Infertility, 4th ed., Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 1989.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Spielmann H, Eibe HG, Jacob-Muller U: In-vitro method for the study of the effects of teratogens on pre-implantation embryos. Acta Morphol Acad Sci Hung 28: 105, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Stein Z, Hatch M, Kline J, et al: Epidemiological considerations in assessing health effects. In: Assessment of Health Effects at Chemical Disposal Sites, p 125, Lowrance WW (ed.), The Rockefeller University, New York, 1981.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Subcommittee on Reproductive and Neurodevelop-mental Toxicology, National Research Council: Biologic Markers in Reproductive Toxicology. National Academy Press, Washington, 1989.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Suskind RR, Hertzberg VS: Human health effects of 2,4,5-T and its toxic contaminants. JAMA 251: 2372, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Suzuki K, Gipe B, Hammil H: Glue-sniffing gravida at risk for premie with severe acidosis. Obstet Gynecol New 17: 8, 1982.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Thiersch JB: Therapeutic abortion with a folic acid antagonist 4-aminoteroylglutamic acid (4-amino PGA) administered by the oral route. Am J Obstet Gynecol 63: 1298, 1952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Thomas HF: 2,4,5-T use and congenital malformation rates in Hungary. Lancet 2: 214, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Thomas HF, Czeizel A: Safe as 2,4,5-T? Nature 295: 276, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Townsend JC, Bodner KM, Van Peene PFD, et al: Survey of reproductive events in wives of employees exposed to chlorinated dioxins. Am J Epidemiol 115: 695, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Tuchmann-Duplessis H: The teratogenic risk. Am J Ind Med 4: 245, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    US Congress, Office of Technology Assessment: Reproductive Health Hazards in the Workplace. US Government Printing Office, OTA-BA-266, Washington, 1985.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    United States Environmental Protection Agency: Six years spontaneous abortion rates in Oregon areas in relationship to forest 2,4,5-T spray practices, USEPA, Washington, 1979.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    United States Environmental Protection Agency: Suspended, Cancelled and Restricted Pesticides, 3rd rev, USEPA, Washington, 1985.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    United States Government Printing Office: Review of literature on herbicides including phenoxy herbicides and associated dioxins, Vols 4 and 6 (stock numbers 051–000-00165–6, 051–000-00174–5), US Government Printing Office, Washington, 1984–1985.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Universities Associated for Research and Education in Pathology: Health Aspects of the Disposal of Waste Chemicals, Peragamon Press, London, 1986.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Vianna NJ: Adverse pregnancy outcomes — potential endpoints of human toxicity in the Love Canal: Preliminary results, In: Human Embryonic and Fetal Death, p 165, Porter IH, Hook EB (eds.), Academic Press, Orlando, 1980.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Vianna NJ, Polan AK: Incidence of low birth weight among Love Canal residents. Science 226: 1217, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Vos JG, Moore JA: Suppression of cellular immunity in rats and mice by maternal treatment with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 47–777, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Vouk VB, Sheehan PJ (eds.): Methods for Assessing the Effects of Chemicals on Reproductive Functions. Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1983.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Weiss B, Clarkson TW: Mercury toxicity in children. In: Chemical and Radiation Hazards to Children. Ross Conferences on Pediatric Research, Ross Laboratory, Columbus, OH, 1982.Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Welch RM, Levin W, Connery AH: Estrogenic action of DDT and its analogs. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 14: 358, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Wibberly DG, Khere AK, Edwards JH, et al: Lead levels in human placentae from normal and malformed births. J Med Genet 14: 339, 1977.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Williams KE: Biochemical mechanisms of terato-genesis. In: Developmental Toxicology, p 95, Snell K (ed.), Praeger, London, 1982.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Wilson AT: Effects of abnormal lead content of water supplies on maternity patients. Scott Med J 11: 73, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Wilson JG: Teratogenic interaction of chemical agents in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 144: 429, 1964.Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Wilson JG: Environmental effects on development— teratology. In: Patho-physiology of Gestation, p 269, Vol 2, Assali NS (ed.), Academic Press, New York, 1972.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Wilson JG: Mechanisms of teratogenesis. Am J Anat 136: 129, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Wilson JG: Environment and Birth Defects, Academic Press, New York, 1973.Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Wilson JG: Teratogenic effects of environmental chemicals. Fed Proc 36: 1698, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Wilson JG, Fraser FE (eds.): Handbook of Teratology, Vol 1, Plenum Press, New York, 1977.Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Wong TK, Everson RB, Hsu ST: Potent induction of human placental mono-oxygenase activity by previous dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and their thermal degradation products. Lancet 1: 721, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Wood JW, Johnson Y, Omori S: In-utero exposure to Hiroshima atomic bomb: An evaluation of head size and mental retardation 27 years later. Pediatrics 39: 385, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    World Health Organization: Health Effects of Combined Exposure in the Work Environment. WHO Technical Reports Series, no. 662, World Health Organization, Geneva, 1981.Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    World Health Organization: 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid. Environmental health criteria 29, World Health Organization, Geneva, 1984.Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Yamasaki JN, Wright SW, Wright PM: Outcome of pregnancy in women exposed to the atomic bomb in Nagasaki. Am J Dis Child 87: 448, 1954.Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Young AL, Calcagani JA, Thalken CE, et al: The Toxicology, Environmental Fate and Human Risk of Herbicide Orange and Its Associated Dioxin. US Air Force Occupational and Environmental Health Laboratory (OEHL) Technical Report TR-78–92, Aerospace Medical Division, Brooks, TX, 1978.Google Scholar

Recommended Readings

  1. Barlow SM, Sullivan FM: Reproductive Hazards of Industrial Chemicals, Academic Press, Orlando, 1982.Google Scholar
  2. Clarkson TW, Nordberg GF, Sager PR (eds.): Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology of Metals, Plenum Press, New York, 1983.Google Scholar
  3. Hemminki K, Sorsa M, Vainio H (eds.): Occupational Hazards and Reproduction, Hemisphere Publications, Washington, 1985.Google Scholar
  4. Napalkov NP, Rice JM, Tomans T, et al: Perinatal and Multigeneration Carcinogenesis, IARC Scientific Publication No. 96, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, 1989.Google Scholar
  5. Schardein JL: Chemically Induced Birth Defects, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1985.Google Scholar
  6. Shepard TH: Catalog of Teratogenic Agents, 7th ed., The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1992.Google Scholar
  7. Subcommittee on Reproductive and Neurodevelopmental Toxicology, National Research Council: Biologic Markers in Reproductive Toxicology, National Academy Press, Washington, 1989.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard B. Kurzel

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations