Neurobehavioral Disorders

  • David E. Hartman
  • Stephen Hessl
  • Alyce Bezman Tarcher


The nervous system is vulnerable to the harmful effects of many industrial and agricultural chemicals. Although it has long been recognized that toxic exposure affects the function of the brain and peripheral nerves, only recently has attention focused on behavioral changes as an indicator of toxic assault to the central nervous system.


Lead Exposure Blood Lead Level Toxic Exposure Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Behavioral Dysfunction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Abel EL: Behavioral Teratogenesis and Behavioral Mutagenesis, Plenum Press, New York, 1989.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry: The Nature and Extent of Lead Poisoning in Children in the United States: A Report to Congress, United States Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Atlanta, 1988.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    American Academy of Pediatrics: Statement on childhood lead poisoning. Pediatrics 79:457, 1987.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd ed., American Psychiatric Association, Washington, 1980.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd ed. rev., American Psychiatric Association, Washington, 1987.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Amin-Zaki L, Elhassani S, Majeed MA, et al: Intrauterine methylmercury poisoning in Iraq. Pediatrics 54:587, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Amin-Zaki L, Majeed MA, Elhassani SB: Prenatal methylmercury poisoning. Clinical observations over five years. Am J Dis Child 133:172, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Anger WK: Neurobehavioral testing of chemicals: Impact on recommended standards. Neurobehavioral Toxicol Teratol 6:147, 1984.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Anger WK, Johnson BL: Chemicals affecting behavior. In: Neurotoxicity of Industrial and Commercial Chemicals, p 51, O’Donoghue J (ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1985.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Annau Z (ed.): Neurobehavioral Toxicology. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1986.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Annau Z, Eccles CU: Prenatal exposure. In: Neurobehavioral Toxicology, p 153, Annau Z (ed.), The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1986.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Axelson O, Hane M, Hogstedt C: A case-referent study on neuropsychiatric disorders among workers exposed to solvents. Scand J Work Environ Health 2:14, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Axelson O, Hane M, Hogstedt C: Current aspects of solvent-related disorders. In: Developments in Occupational Medicine, p 237, Zenz C (ed.), Year Book Medical Publishers, Chicago, 1980.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Baker EL Jr: Epidemiologic issues in neurotoxicity research. Neurobehav Toxicol Teratol 7:293, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Baker EL: Organic solvent neurotoxicity. Annu Rev Public Health 9:233, 1988.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Baker EL, Fine LJ: Solvent neurotoxicity. J Occup Med 28:126, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Baker EL, Landrigan PJ, Barbour AG, et al: Occupational lead poisoning in the United States: Clinical and biochemical findings related to blood lead levels. Br J Ind Med 36:314, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Baker EL, Feldman RG, White RF, et al: Occupational lead neurotoxicity: A behavioral and electrophysiological evaluation. Study design and year one results. Br J Ind Med 41:352, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Baker EL, Letz R, Fidler A: A computer-administered neurobehavioral evaluation system for occupational and environmental epidemiology. J Occup Med 27: 206, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Baker EL Jr, Smith TJ, Landrigan PJ: The neurotoxicity of industrial solvents: A review of the literature. Am J Ind Med 8:207, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Baker EL, White RF, Pothier LJ, et al: Occupational lead neurotoxicity: Improvement in behavioural effects after reduction in exposure. Br J Ind Med 42: 507, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Baker EL, Letz RE, Eisen EA, et al: Neurobehavioral effects of solvents in construction painters. J Occup Med 30:116, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bayley N: Bayley Scales of Infant Development, The Psychological Corporation, New York, 1969.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bellinger D, Needleman HL, Leviton A, et al: Early sensory-motor development and prenatal exposure to lead. Neurobehav Toxicol Teratol 6:387, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bellinger D, Leviton A, Needleman HL, et al: Low-level lead exposure and infant development in the first year. Neurobehav Toxicol Teratol 8:151, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bellinger D, Leviton A, Waternaux C, et al: Longitudinal analyses of prenatal and postnatal lead exposure and early cognitive development. N Engl J Med 316:1037, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bellinger D, Leviton A, Waternaux C, et al: Low-level lead exposure, social class, and infant development. Neurotoxicol Teratol 10:497, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bellinger D, Leviton A, Waternaux C, et al: Lead, IQ, and social class. Int Epidemiology 18:180, 1989.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Boer GJ, Feenstra MGP, Mirmiran M, et al: Biochemical Basis of Functional Neuroteratology: Permanent Effects of Chemicals on the Developing Brain, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1988.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Brodsky CM: “Allergic to everything”: A medical subculture. Psychosomatics 24:731, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Brodsky CM: Multiple chemical sensitivities and other “environmental illness”: A psychiatrist’s view. Occup Med 2:695, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cherry N, Hutchins H, Pace T, et al: Neurobehavioral effects of repeated occupational exposure to toluene and paint solvents. Br J Ind Med 42:291, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chisolm JJ Jr: Dose-effect relationship for lead in young children: Evidence in children for interactions among lead, zinc and iron. In: Environmental Lead: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Environmental Lead Research, p 1, Lynam DR, Piantanida LG, Cole JF (eds.), Academic Press, Orlando, 1981.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cone JE, Harrison R, Reiter R: Patients with multiple chemical sensitivities: Clinical diagnostic subsets among an occupational health clinic population. Occup Med 2:721, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cranmer J, Goldberg L (eds.): Workshop on neurobehavioral effects of solvents. Neurotoxicology 7:1, 1986.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cullen MR (ed.): Workers with multiple chemical sensitivities. Occup Med 2:655–805, 1987.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cullen MR: The worker with multiple chemical sensitivities: An overview. Occup Med 2:655, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Davis JM, Svensgaard DJ: Lead and child development. Nature 329:297, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dick RB, Johnson BL: Human experimental studies. In: Neurobehavioral Toxicology, p 348, Annau Z (ed.), The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1986.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dietrich KN, Krafft KM, Bornschein RL, et al: Low-level fetal lead exposure effect on neurobehavioral development in early infancy. Pediatrics 80:721, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Dillie JR, Smith PW: Central nervous system effects of chronic exposure to organophosphate insecticide. Aerospace Med 35:475, 1964.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Durham WF, Wolfe HR, Quinby GE: Organophosphorus insecticides and mental alertness. Arch Environ Health 10:55, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ecobichon DJ, Joy RM (eds.): Pesticides and Neurological Diseases, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1982.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Elkins HB: Maximum acceptable concentrations, a comparison in Russia and the United States. Arch Environ Health 2:45, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Elofsson S, Gamberale F, Hindmarsh T, et al: Exposure to organic solvents. A cross-sectional epidemiologic investigation on occupationally exposed car and industrial spray painters with special reference to the nervous system. Scand J Work Environ Health 6:239, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ensberg IFG, de Bruin A, Ziehuis RL: Health of workers exposed to a cocktail of pesticides. Int Arch Arbeitsmed 32:191, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ernhart CB, Landa B, Wolf AW: Subclinical lead levels and developmental deficits: Reanalysis of data. J Learn Dis 18:475, 1985.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ernhart CB, Morrow-Tlucak M, Marier M, et al: Low level lead exposure in the prenatal and early preschool periods: Early preschool development. Neurotoxicol Teratol 9:259, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ernhart CB, Morrow-Tlucak M, Wolf AW, et al: Low level lead exposure in the prenatal and early preschool periods: intelligence prior to school entry. Neurotoxicol Teratol 11:161, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Eskenazi B: Behavioral teratology. In: Perinatal Epidemiology, p 216, Bracken MB (ed.), Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1984.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Eskenazi B, Maizlish NA: Effects of occupational exposure to chemicals on neurobehavioral functioning. In: Medical Neuropsychology: The Impact of Disease on Behavior, p 223, Tarter RE, Van Thiel DH, Edwards KL (eds.), Plenum Press, New York, 1988.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Feldman RG, Ricks NL, Baker EL: Neuropsychological effects of industrial toxins: A review. Am J Ind Med 1:211, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Fischbein A, Thornton JC, Lilis R, et al: Zinc protoporphyrin, blood lead and clinical symptoms in two occupational groups with low-level exposure to lead. Am J Ind Med 1:391, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR: Minimental State: A practical method for grading the cognitive state for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res 12:189, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Fulton M, Thomson G, Hunter R, et al: Influence of blood lead on the ability and attainment of children in Edinburgh. Lancet 1:1221, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Gamberale F: Use of behavioral performance tests in the assessment of solvent toxicity. Scand J Work Environ Health 11(Suppl 1):65, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Gazzaniga MS: Organization of the human brain. Science 245:947, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gershon S, Shaw FB: Psychiatric sequelae of chronic exposure to organophosphorus insecticides. Lancet 1:1371, 1971.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Gladen BC, Rogan WJ, Hardy P, et al: Development after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene transplacentally and through human milk. J Pediatr 113:991, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Godish T: Indoor Air Pollution Control, Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, Michigan, 1989.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Grandjean P, Arnvig E, Beckmann J: Psychological dysfunction in lead-exposed workers: Relation to biological parameters of exposure. Scand J Work Environ Health 4:295, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Grasso P: Neurotoxic and neurobehavioral effects of organic solvents on the nervous system. Occup Med 3:525, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Grasso P, Sharratt M, Davies DM, et al: Neurophysiological and psychological disorders and occupational exposure to organic solvents. Food Chem Toxicol 22:819, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Gregersen P, Angelse B, Nielsen TE, et al: Neurotoxic effects of organic solvents in exposed workers: An occupational neuropsychological and neurological investigation. Am J Ind Med 5:201, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hane M, Axelson O, Blume J, et al: Psychological function changes among house painters. Scand J Work Environ Health 3:91, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hänninen H, Eskelinen L, Husman K, et al: Behavioral effects of long-term exposure to a mixture of organic solvents. Scand J Work Environ Health 2:240, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hänninen H, Hernberg S, Mantere P, et al: Psychological performance of subjects with low exposure to lead. J Occup Med 20:683, 1978.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hartman DE: On the use of clinical psychology software: Practical, legal, and ethical concerns. Prof Psychol Res Pract 17:462, 1986.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Hartman DE: Artificial intelligence or artificial psychologist? Conceptual issues in clinical microcomputer use. Prof Psychol Res Pract 17:528, 1986.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hartman DE: Neuropsychological toxicology: Identification and assessment of neurotoxic syndromes. Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2:45, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Hartman DE: Neuropsychological Toxicology: Identification and Assessment of Human Neurotoxic Syndromes. Pergamon Press, New York, 1988.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Harvey P, Hamlin M, Kumar R: Blood lead, behavior and intelligence test performance in preschool children. Sci Total Environ 40:45, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Hatzakis A, Kokkevi A, Maravelias C, et al: Psychometric intelligence deficits in lead-exposed children. In: Lead Exposure and Child Development: An International Assessment, p 211, Smith MA, Grant LD, Sors AI (eds.), Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1989.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Hernberg S: Neurotoxic effects of long-term exposure to organic hydrocarbon solvents: Epidemiologic aspects. In: Mechanisms of Toxicity and Hazard Evaluation, Holmstedt B, Lauwerys R, Mercier M, et al. (eds.), p 937, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1980.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Hirshberg A, Lerman Y: Clinical problems in organophosphorus insecticide poisoning. The use of a computerized information system. Fundam Appl Toxicol 4:5209, 1984.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Hogstedt C, Axelson O: Long-term health effects of industrial solvents: A critical review of the epidemiologic research. Med Lav 77:11, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Hogstedt C, Hane M, Axelson O: Diagnostic and health care aspects of workers exposed to solvents. In: Developments in Occupational Medicine, p 249, Zenz C (ed.), Year Book Medical Publishers, Chicago, 1980.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Holmes JH, Gaon MD: Observations on acute and multiple exposure to anticholinesterase agents. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc 68:86, 1956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Husman K, Karli P: Clinical neurological findings among car painters exposed to a mixture of organic solvents. Scand J Work Environ Health 6:33, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Jeyaratnam J: Health problems of pesticide usage in the Third World. Br J Ind Med 42:505, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Johnson BL (ed.): Prevention of Neurotoxic Disease in Working Populations. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1987.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Knave B, Olson BA, Elofsson S, et al: Long-term exposure to jet fuel. H. A cross-sectional epidemiologic investigation on occupationally exposed workers with special reference to the nervous system. Scand J Work Environ Health 4:19, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Korsak RJ, Sato MM: Effects of chronic organophosphate pesticide exposure on the central nervous system. Clin Toxicol 11:83, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Landrigan PJ, Kreiss K, Xintarus C, et al: Clinical epidemiology of occupational neurotoxic disease. Neurobehav Toxicol 2:43, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Lansdown R, Yule M, Urbanowicz MA, et al: The relationships between blood-lead concentrations, intelligence, attainment and behavior in a school population: The second London study. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 57:225, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Letz R, Baker EL: Computer-administered neurobehavioral testing in occupational health. Semin Occup Med 1:197, 1986.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Levin AS, Byers VS: Environmental illness: A disorder of immune regulation. Occup Med 2:669, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Levine SA, Reinhardt JH: Biochemical-pathology initiated by free radicals, oxidant chemicals, and therapeutic drugs in the etiology of chemical hypersensitivity disease. Orthomol Psychiatry 12:166, 1983.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Lezak MD: Neuropsychological assessment in behavioral toxicology—developing techniques and interpretive issues. Scand J Work Environ Health 10 (Suppl 1):25, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Lilis R, Valciukas JA, Malkin J, et al: Effects of low-level lead and arsenic exposure on copper smelter workers. Arch Environ Health 40:38, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Linström K: Changes in psychological performance of solvent-poisoned and solvent-exposed workers. Am J Ind Med 1:69, 1980.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Linström K, Wickström G: Psychological function changes among maintenance house painters exposed to low levels of organic solvent mixtures. Acta Psy-chiatr Scand 67(Suppl 303):81, 1983.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Linström K, Riihimäki H, Hänninen K: Occupational solvent exposure and neuropsychiatric disorders. Scand J Work Environ Health 10:321, 1984.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Lotti M: Production and use of pesticides. In: Toxicology of Pesticides: Experimental, Clinical and Regulatory Perspectives, p 15, Costa LG, Galli CL, Murphy SD (eds.), Spring-Verlag, Berlin, 1987.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Maizlish NA, Langolf GD, Whitehead LW, et al: Behavioural evaluation of workers exposed to mixtures of organic solvents. Br J Ind Med 42:579, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Maizlish NA, Schenker M, Weisskopf C, et al: A behavioral evaluation of pest control workers with short-term low-level exposure to the organophosphate diazinon. Am J Ind Med 12:153, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Mantere P, Hänninen H, Hernberg S: Subclinical neurotoxic lead effects: Two-year follow-up studies with psychological test methods. Neurobehav Toxicol Teratol 4:725, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Mantere P, Hänninen H, Hernberg S, et al: A prospective follow-up study on psychological effects in workers exposed to low levels of lead. Scand J Work Environ Health 10:43, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Markowitz ME, Rosen JF: Zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) metabolism in CaNa2EDTA-treated children with plumbism. Pediatr Res 15:635, 1981.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Matarazzo JD, Matarazzo RG: Clinical psychological test interpretations by computer: Hardware outpaces software. Comput Human Behav 1:235, 1986.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    McMichael AJ, Baghurst PA, Wigg NR, et al: Port Pirie cohort study: Environmental exposure to lead and children’s abilities at the age of four years. N Engl J Med 319:408, 1989.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Mello NK: Behavioral toxicology: A developing discipline. Fed Proc 34:1832, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Metcalf DR, Holmes JH: EEG, psychological and neurological alterations in humans with organophosphate exposure. Ann NY Acad Sci 160:357, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Mikkelsen S: A cohort study of disability pension and death among painters with special regard to disabling presenile dementia as an occupational disease. Scand J Soc Med 16(Suppl):34, 1980.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Mitchell CL, Tilson HA, Cabe PA: Screening for neurobehavioral toxicity: Factors to consider. In: Nervous System Toxicology, p 229, Mitchell C (ed.), Raven Press, New York, 1982.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Needleman HL (ed.): Low Level Lead Exposure: The Clinical Implications of Current Research, Raven Press, New York, 1980.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Needleman HL: Epidemiological studies. In: Neurobehavioral Toxicology, p 279, Annau Z (ed.), The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1986.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Needleman HL: Low level lead exposure in the fetus and young child. Neurotoxicology 8:389, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Needleman HL: The neurotoxic, teratogenic, and behavioral teratogenic effects of lead at low doses: A paradigm for transplacental toxicants. In: Transplacental Effects of Fetal Health, p 279, Scarpelli DG, Magaki G (eds.), Alan R Liss, New York, 1988.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Needleman HL, Gunnoe C, Leviton A, et al: Deficits in psychologic and classroom performance of children with elevated dentine lead levels. N Engl J Med 300:689, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Needleman HL, Schell A, Bellinger D: The long-term effects of exposure to low doses of lead in childhood: An 11-year follow-up report. N Engl J Med 322:83, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Olsen J, Sabroe S: A case-reference study of neuropsychiatrie disorders among workers exposed to solvents in the Danish wood and furniture industry. Scand J Soc Med 16(Suppl):44, 1980.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Randolph TC: Depression caused by home exposures to gas and combustion products of gas, oil, and coal. J Lab Clin Med 46:942, 1955.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Randolph TC: Human Ecology and Susceptibility to the Chemical Environment, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL, 1962.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Randolph TC: Emergence of the specialty of clinical ecology. Clin Ecol 2:65, 1982.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Reiter L: Use of activity measures in behavioral toxicology. Environ Health Perspect 26:9, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Repko JD, Corum CR, Jones PD, et al: The effects of inorganic lead on behavioral and neurologic function, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Publication no. 78–128, Washington, 1978.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Reuhl KR, Chang LW: Effects of methylmercury on the development of the nervous system: A review. Neurotoxicology 1:21, 1979.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Riley EP, Vorhees CV (eds.): Handbook of Behavioral Teratology, Plenum Press, New York, 1986.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Rodnitzky RL, Levin HS, Mick DL: Occupational exposure to organophosphate pesticides: A neurobehavioral study. Arch Environ Health 30:98, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Savage EP, Keefe TJ, Mounce LM, et al: Chronic neurological sequelae of acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning. Arch Environ Health 43:38, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Schottenfeld RS: Workers with multiple chemical sensitivities: A psychiatric approach to diagnosis and treatment. Occup Med 2:739, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Schottenfeld RS, Cullen MR: Organic affective illness associated with lead intoxication. Am J Psychiatry 141:1423, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Sette WF: Complexity of neurotoxicological assessment. Neurotoxicol Teratol 9:411, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Sette WF, Levine TE: Behavior as a regulatory endpoint. In: Neurobehavioral Toxicology, p 391, Annau Z (ed.), The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1986.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Silbergeld EK: Indirectly acting neurotoxins. Acta Psychiatr Scand 67(Suppl 303):16, 1983.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Smith M, Delves T, Lansdown R, et al: The effects of lead exposure on urban children: The Institute of Child Health/Southhampton study. Dev Med Child Neurol 47 [Suppl]:1, 1983.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Smith MA, Grant LD, Sors AI (eds.): Lead Exposure and Child Development: An International Assessment, Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 1989.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Sorrell M, Rosen JF, Roginsky M: Interactions of lead, calcium, vitamin D and nutrition in lead-burdened children. Arch Environ Health 32:160, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Spencer PS, Schaumburg HH: Organic solvent neurotoxicity. Scand J Work Environ Health 11(Suppl 1): 53, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Spyker JM: Assessing the impact of low level chemicals on development: Behavioral and latent effects. Fed Proc 34:1836, 1975.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Strub RL, Black FW: Neurobehavioral Disorders: A Clinical Approach, 2nd ed., FA Davis, Philadelphia, 1989.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Struwe G, Wennberg A: Psychiatric and neurological symptoms in workers occupationally exposed to organic solvents. In: Biology Psychiatry, p 253, Perris C, Struwe G, Jannson B (eds.), Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1981.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Tabershaw IR, Cooper WC: Sequelae of acute organic phosphate poisoning. J Occup Med 8:5, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Terr AI: Environmental illness: A critical review of 50 cases. Arch Intern Med 146:145, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Terr AI: “Multiple chemical sensitivities”: Immunologic critique of clinical ecology theories and practice. Occup Med 2:683, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Terr AI: Clinical ecology in the workplace. J Occup Med 31:257, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Tilson HA, Mitchell CL: Neurobehavioral techniques to assess the effects of chemicals on the nervous system. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 24:425, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Triebig G, Bleecker M, Giliole R, et al: International working group on the epidemiology of the chronic neurobehavioral effects of organic solvents. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 61:423, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    US Environmental Protection Agency: Air Quality Criteria for Lead (EPA report no.EPA/600/8–83/028aF-dF), Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Research Triangle Park, 1986.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    US Environmental Protection Agency: Health Effects Test Guidelines (EPA 560.6–83–001, PB 83–257691), National Technical Information Services, Alexandria, VA, 1989.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Valciukas JA, Lilis R, Eisinger J, et al: Behavioral indicators of lead neurotoxicity: Results of a clinical field survey. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 41:217, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Vorhees CV: Reliability, sensitivity, and validity of behavioral indices of neurotoxicity. Neurotoxicol Ter-atol 9:445, 1987.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Wallingford KM, Carpenter J: Field experience overview: Investigating sources of indoor air quality problems in office buildings. In: Proceedings of IAQ ′86: Managing Indoor Air for Health and Energy Conservation, p 448, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, 1986.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Watson JM: Solvent abuse by children and young adults: A review. Br J Addict 75:27, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Weiss B: Behavior as an early indicator of pesticide toxicity. Toxicol Ind Health 4:351, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Weiss B, Lanes VG (eds.): Behavioral Toxicology, Plenum Press, New York, 1975.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    White R, Feldman RG: Neuropsychological assessment of toxic encephalopathy. Am J Ind Med 11:395, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Whorton MD, Obrinsky DL: Persistence of symptoms after mild to moderate acute organophosphate poisoning among 19 farm field workers. J Toxicol Environ Health 11:347, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Wigg NR, Vimpani GV, McMichael AJ, et al: Port Pirie cohort study: Childhood blood lead and neuropsychological development at age two years. J Epidemiol Commun Health 42:213, 1988.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Winneke G, Kraemer U: Neuropsychological effects of lead in children: Interactions with social background variable. Neuropsychobiology 11:195, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Winneke G, Kraemer U, Brockhaus U, et al: Neuropsychological studies in children with elevated tooth-lead concentration. II: Extended study. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 108:231, 1983.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    World Health Organization: Safe Use of Pesticides, Technical Report Series No. 9, World Health Organization, Geneva, 1973.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    World Health Organization: Chronic Effects of Organic Solvents on the Central Nervous System and Diagnostic Criteria, World Health Organization and Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen, 1985.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Yule W: Methological and statistical issues. In: The Lead Debate: The Environment, Toxicology and Child Health, p 193, Lansdown R, Yule W (eds.), Croom Helm, London, 1986.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Yule W, Rutter M: Effect of lead on children’s behavior and cognitive performance: A critical review. In: Dietary and Environmental Lead: Human Health Effects, p 211, Mahaffey K (ed.), Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1985.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Ziegler EE, Edwards BB, Jensen RL, et al: Absorption and retention of lead by infants. Pediatr Res 12:29, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Zimmerman-Tansella C, Campara P, D’Andrea F, et al: Psychological and physical complaints of subjects with low exposure to lead. Hum Toxicol 2:615, 1983.Google Scholar

Recommended Readings

  1. Annau Z (ed.): Neurobehavioral Toxicology, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1986.Google Scholar
  2. Hartman DE: Neuropsychological Toxicology: Identification and Assessment of Human Neurotoxic Syndromes. Pergamon Press, London, 1988.Google Scholar
  3. Johnson BL (ed.): Prevention of Neurotoxic Illness in Working Populations, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1987.Google Scholar
  4. Riley EP, Vorhees CV (eds.): Handbook of Behavioral Teratology, Plenum Press, New York, 1985.Google Scholar
  5. Smith MA, Grant LD, Sors AL (eds.): Lead Exposure and Child Development: An International Assessment, Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 1989.Google Scholar
  6. Weiss B, Laties VG (eds.): Behavioral Toxicology, Plenum Press, New York, 1975.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • David E. Hartman
  • Stephen Hessl
  • Alyce Bezman Tarcher

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations