Childhood Traumas

An Outline and Overview
  • Lenore C. Terr
Part of the The Springer Series on Stress and Coping book series (SSSO)

Abstract

Mental conditions brought on by horrible external events in childhood present a wide range of findings. If one looks only at the clinical manifestations of trauma in a given day in the life of the traumatized child, one could diagnose conduct disorder, borderline personality, major affective disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity, phobic disorder, dissociative disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, adjustment disorder, and even such conditions (as yet unofficial in the nomenclature) as precursors of multiple personality or acute dissociative disorder. If one projects this multiplicity of technically correct diagnoses onto a traumatized child’s adulthood, one finds even more diagnostic leeway.

Keywords

Rheumatic Fever Childhood Trauma Child Psychiatry Cognitive Reappraisal Trauma Victim 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bliss, E. (1986). Multiple personality, allied disorders, and hypnosis. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Carmen, E., Rieker, P. P., and Mills, T. (1984). Victims of violence and psychiatric illness. American Journal of Psychiatry, 141, 378–383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Erikson, E. (1950). Childhood and society. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  4. Eth, S., and Pynoos, R. (1985). Interaction of trauma and grief in childhood. In S. Eth and R. Pynoos (Eds.), Post-traumatic stress disorder in children. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  5. Freud, A. (1969). Comments on psychic trauma. In C. Baines (Ed. and Trans.), The writings of Anna Freud: Research at the Hampstead child-therapy clinic and other papers (Vol. 5, pp. 221–241 ). New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  6. Freud, S. (1955). Beyond the pleasure principle. In J. Strachey (Ed. and Trans.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 18 ). London: Hogarth. ( Original work published 1920 )Google Scholar
  7. Green, A. (1983). Dimensions of psychological trauma in abused children. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 22, 231–237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Herman, J., and van der Kolk, B. A. (1987). Traumatic antecedents of borderline personality. In B. van der Kolk (Ed.), Psychological trauma. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  9. Kestenberg, J. (1985). Child survivors of the Holocaust-40 years later. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 24,408–412.Google Scholar
  10. Kinzie, J. D. (1986). Severe posttraumatic stress syndrome among Cambodian refugees. InGoogle Scholar
  11. J. Shore (Ed.), Disaster stress studies. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  12. Kinzie, J. D., Sack, W., Angell, R., et al. (1986). The psychiatric effects of massive trauma on Cambodian children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 25, 370–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kinzie, J. D., Sack, W., Angell, R., et al. (1989). A three-year follow-up of Cambodian young people traumatized as children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 28, 501–504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kluft, R. (1985). Childhood multiple personality disorder. In R. Kluft (Ed.), Childhood antecedents of multiple personality. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  15. Lewis, D. O., Lovely, R., Yaeger, C., et al. (1989). Toward a theory of the genesis of violence. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 28, 431–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lewis, D. O., Moy, E., Jackson, L. D., et al. (1985). Biopsychosocial characteristics of children who later murder: A prospective study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 1161–1167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Lifton, R., and Olson, E. (1976). The human meaning of total disaster. Psychiatry, 39, 1–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Mack, J. (1970). Nightmares and the human conflict. Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  19. McLeer, S., Deblinger, E., Atkins, M., et al. (1988). Post-traumatic stress disorder in sexually abused children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27, 650–659.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Osterweis, M., Solomon, F., and Green, M. (1984). Bereavement. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  21. Pynoos, R., Frederick, C., and Nader, K., et al. (1987). Life threat and post-traumatic stress in school age children. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 1057–1063.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Russell, D. (1986). The secret trauma. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  23. Silver, L. B., Dublin, C. C., and Lourie, R. S. (1969). Does violence breed violence? Contributions from a study of the child abuse syndrome. American Journal of Psychiatry, 126, 404–407.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Spiegel, D. (1984). Multiple personality as a post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychiatry Clinics of North America, 7, 101–110.Google Scholar
  25. Spitz, R. (1945). Hospitalism. Psychoanalytic Study of Children, 1, 64–72.Google Scholar
  26. Stoddard, F. J., Norman, D. K., and Murphy, J. M. (1989). A diagnostic outcome study of children and adolescents with severe burns. Journal of Trauma, 29, 471–477.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Stoller, R. (1989). Consensual sadomasochistic perversions. In H. Blum, E. M. Weinshel, and F. R. Rodman (Eds.), The psychoanalytic core. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  28. Terr, L. (1979). Children of Chowchilla. Psychoanalytic Study of Children, 34, 547–623. Terr, L. (1981). Forbidden games. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 20, 740–759.Google Scholar
  29. Terr, L. (1983). Life attitudes, dreams, and psychic trauma in a group of “normal” children. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 22, 221–230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Terr, L. (1985). Remembered images in psychic trauma. Psychoanalytic Study of Children, 40, 493–533.Google Scholar
  31. Terr, L. (1987). Children’s nightmares. In C. Guilleminault (Ed.), Sleep and its disorders in children. New York: Raven.Google Scholar
  32. Terr, L. (1987). Childhood trauma and the creative product. Psychoanalytic Study of Children, 42, 545–572.Google Scholar
  33. Terr, L. (1988). What happens to the memories of early childhood trauma? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27, 96–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Terr, L. (1989). Terror writing by the formerly terrified. Psychoanalytic Study of Children, 44, 369–390.Google Scholar
  35. Terr, L. (1990). Children’s responses to the Challenger disaster. In New research program and abstracts of the American Psychiatric Association (143rd annual meeting). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  36. Terr, L. (1990). Too scared to cry. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  37. Terr, L. (1990). Who’s afraid in Virginia Woolf? Psychoanalytic Study of Children, 45, 53 1544.Google Scholar
  38. Terr, L. C. (1970). A family study of child abuse. American Journal of Psychiatry, 127, 665671Google Scholar
  39. Terr, L. C. (1983). Chowchilla revisited: The effects of psychic trauma four years after a school-bus kidnapping. American Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 1543–1550.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Walsh, R. (1977). The family of the borderline patient. In F. Grinker and B. Werble (Eds.), The borderline patient. New York: Aronson.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lenore C. Terr
    • 1
  1. 1.San FranciscoUSA

Personalised recommendations