It has been estimated that excessive stress and its various physical manifestations account for more than 80% of all visits to health care professionals (Cummings & Vanden Bos, 1981). According to the National Council on Compensation Insurance, excessive stress accounts for about 14% of all “occupational disease” workers’ compensation claims (McCarthy, 1988); the council notes that the per-claim benefit payments for stress-related disorders average roughly twice those of physical disorders. Estimates have placed the overall cost of stress on the American economy as high as $150 billion per year (Miller et al., 1988). Data such as these have caused some to consider excessive stress as a virtual plague on society that has, indeed, reached epidemic proportions. Yet the common images of workaholic executives, overpressured middle managers, and burned out nurses, doctors, teachers, or sales personnel represent only one aspect of the plague. Another aspect, one that may give no warning of its approach nor of its destructive force, is post-traumatic stress.
KeywordsTraumatic Stress Borderline Personality Disorder Psychological Trauma Excessive Stress Compensation Claim
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