Raynaud’s Disease and Phenomenon

  • Robert R. Freedman
Part of the Springer Series in Rehabilitation and Health book series (SSRH)


The primary symptom of Raynaud’s phenomenon is episodic digital vasospasms provoked by exposure to cold and/or emotional stress (Freedman & Ianni, 1983a). Attacks generally last for several minutes and consist of blanching followed by cyanosis and rubor. The disorder is four times more common in women than in men and has an estimated prevalence of 4.3% in the United States (Weinrich, Marieg, Keil, McGregor, & Diat, 1990). The term Raynaud’s disease denotes the primary form of the disorder in which symptoms are not the result of an identifiable disease process, such as scleroderma or other collagen vascular diseases. When the symptoms occur secondarily to another disease, we use the term Raynaud’s phenomenon.


Brachial Artery Skin Conductance Level Finger Blood Flow Autogenic Training Sympathetic Nerve Ending 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert R. Freedman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral MedicineWayne State University School of Medicine, and C. S. Mott CenterDetroitUSA

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