Temporomandibular Disorders

  • Dennis C. Turk
  • Donald B. Penzien
  • Jeanetta C. Rains
Part of the Springer Series in Rehabilitation and Health book series (SSRH)

Abstract

Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) represent a range of clinical problems with a set of common features that involve masticatory musculature and/or the temporomandibular joint. The most common initial symptom is pain, usually localized in the muscles of mastication, the preauricular area (in front of the ear), the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), or all three areas. Chewing or other jaw functions usually aggravate the pain. Other common symptoms include jaw ache, earache, headache, and facial pain. In addition to complaints of pain, patients with TMDs frequently evidence a limited range of, or deviant mandibular movement on opening and joint sounds (e.g., clicking, popping, grating, or crepitus). Dentists frequently observe the presence of excessive wear on the teeth of TMD patients. This excessive wear may result from bruxing (i.e., grinding and repeated clenching of the teeth). Bruxing causes excessive levels of muscle tension and when prolonged, may result in structural changes in the temporomandibular joint. TMDs commonly fall into four major categories depending on the presumed site of pathophysiology:
  1. 1.

    Myofascial pain dysfunction (MPD) disorders of the muscles of mastication

     
  2. 2.

    Internal derangement (ID) of the contents of the joint space, implying anatomical disturbance of the disc-condyle relationship and consequent changes in the mechanics of the joint—pathologic placement

     
  3. 3.

    Degenerative joint disorders (DJD) and other changes of the condyle and other bony components of the joint

     
  4. 4.

    Fractures, infections, and tumors of the joint.

     

Keywords

Chronic Pain Patient Temporomandibular Disorder Internal Derangement American Dental Association Stress Management Training 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dennis C. Turk
    • 1
  • Donald B. Penzien
    • 2
  • Jeanetta C. Rains
    • 2
  1. 1.Pain Evaluation and Treatment InstituteUniversity of Pittsburgh School of MedicinePittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Mississippi Medical CenterJacksonUSA

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