Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

  • Linda R. Kostyak
Part of the Springer Series in Rehabilitation and Health book series (SSRH)

Abstract

Medical professionals have often called systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) a “mysterious” illness because its confusing symptomatology has baffled the medical community for centuries. It is the product of an immune system gone awry, and, for this reason, it is capable of producing a variety of curious symptoms in virtually any organ or system of the body. A formal definition of SLE is “a chronic, inflammatory disease in which the body’s immune system, instead of serving its normal protective function, forms antibodies that attack healthy tissues and organs” (Lupus Foundation of America, Inc., 1990, p. 2). SLE is sometimes fatal, often debilitating, and, once diagnosed, always present; to date, research has found no definite cause, course, or cure. Current classifications list three types of lupus: (1) discoid lupus, which affects only skin by causing rashes and lesions; (2) drug-induced lupus, caused by a reaction to medications; and (3) systemic lupus erythematosus, which is most serious and systemwide. Although all three types of lupus receive mention in this chapter, the primary focus is on the most severe form, SLE., tracing the history, diagnosis, treatment, and implications for the field of psychology.

Keywords

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Chronic Illness Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patient Psychological Symptom Behavioral Medicine 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ader, R., & Cohen, N. (1985). CNS-immune system interactions: Conditioning phenomena. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 8, 379–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aladjem, H. (1985). Understanding lupus: What it is, how to treat it, how to cope with it. New York: Scribner’s.Google Scholar
  3. Aladjem, H., & Schur, P. H. (1988). In search of the sun: A woman’s courageous victory over lupus. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  4. American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed. rev.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  5. Arnett, F. C., Bias, W. B., & Shulman, L. E. (1972). Studies in familial systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 15, 102.Google Scholar
  6. Asherson, R. A., Denburg, S. D., Denburg, J. A., Carbotte, R. M., & Futrell, N. (1993). Current concepts of neuropsychiatrie systemic lupus erythematosus (NP-SLE). Postgraduate Medical Journal, 69(1), 602–608.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baehr, G., Klemperer, P., & Schifrin, A. (1935). A diffuse disease of the peripheral circulation usually associated with lupus erythematosus and endocarditis. Transactions of the Association of American Physicians, 50, 139.Google Scholar
  8. Bardana, E. J., Jr., Malinow, M. R., Houghton, D. C., McNulty, W. P., Wuepper, K. D., Parker, F., & Pirofsky, B. (1982). Diet-induced systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in primates. American Journal of Kidney Disease, 1(6), 345–352.Google Scholar
  9. Beck, A. T. (1976). Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  10. Blotzer, J. W. (1983). Systemic lupus erythematosus I: Historical aspects. Maryland State Medical Journal, 32, 439–441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bluestein, H. G. (1987). Neuropsychiatric disorders in systemic lupus erythematosus. In R. G. Lahita (Ed.), Systemic lupus erythematosus (pp. 593–614). New York: Churchill Livingstone.Google Scholar
  12. Bluestein, H. G. (1987). Neuropsychiatrie manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus. The New England Journal of Medicine, 317(5), 309–311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bresnihan, B., Hohmeister, R., Cutting, J., Travers, R. L., Waldburger, M., Black, C., Jones, T., & Hughes, G. R. V (1979). The neuropsychiatrie disorder in systemic lupus erythematosus: Evidence for both vascular and immune mechanisms. An nais of the Rheumatic Diseases, 38, 301–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brunner, C. M., Horwitz, D. A., Shann, M. K., Sturgill, B. A., & Davis, J. S. (1973). IV: Clinical and immunologie studies in identical twins discordant for systemic lupus erythematosus. American Journal of Medicine, 55, 249–254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Buckman, K. J., Moore, S. K., Ebbin, A. J., Cox, M. B., & Dubois, E. L (1978). Familial systemic lupus erythematosus. Archives of Internal Medicine, 138, 1674–1676.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carbotte, R. M., Denburg, S. D., & Denburg, J. A. (1986). Prevalence of cognitive impairment in systemic lupus erythematosus. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 174(6), 357–364.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cassileth, B. R., Lusk, E. J., Strouse, T. B., Miller, D. S., Brown, L. L., Corss, P. A., & Tenaglia, A. N. (1984). Psychosocial status in chronic illness: A comparative analysis of six diagnostic groups. The New England Journal of Medicine, 311(8), 506–511.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cazanave, P. L., & Chausit, M. (1851). Annales des maladies de la peau et de la syphilis. Conference du 4 Juin 1851 Paris, 3, 297–299.Google Scholar
  19. Cope, N. R., & Hall, H. R. (1985). The health status of black women in the U.S.: Implications for health psychology and behavioral medicine. SAGE, 11(2), 20–24.Google Scholar
  20. Cordasco, E. M., Demeter, S. L., Kerkay, J., van Ordstrand, H. S., Lucas, E. V., Chen, T., & Golish, J. A. (1980). Pulmonary manifestations of vinyl and Polyvinylchloride interstitial lung disease. Chest, 78, 828–834.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Currey, H. L. F., & Hull, S. (1987). Rheumatology for general practitioners. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Darby, P. L., & Schmidt, P. J. (1988). Psychiatric consultations in rheumatology: A review of 100 cases. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 33, 290–292.Google Scholar
  23. Denburg, J. A., Carbotte, R. M., & Denburg, S. D. (1987). Neuronal antibodies and cognitive function in systemic lupus erythematosus. Neurology, 37, 464–467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Denburg, S. D., Carbotte, R. M., Long, A. A., & Denburg, J. A. (1988). Neuropsychological correlates of serum lymphocytotoxic antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus. Brain, Behavior and Immunity, 2, 222–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Denburg, J. A., & Temesvari, P. (1983). Current review: The pathogenesis of neuropsychiatrie lupus. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 128, 257–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Drug facts and comparisons. (1993). St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, Kluwer.Google Scholar
  27. Dubois, E., & Wallace, D. J. (1987). Lupus erythematosus (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.Google Scholar
  28. Dvoredsky, A. E., & Cooley, H. W. (1986). Comparative severity of illness in patients with combined medical and psychiatric diagnoses. Psychosomatics, 27(9), 625–630.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Elliott, J. A., Jr., & Mathieson, D. R. (1953). Complement in disseminated (systemic) lupus erythematosus. Archives of Dermatology and Syphilology, 68, 119–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Epstein, J. H., Tuffanelli, D. L., & Dubois, E. L (1965). Light sensitivity and lupus erythematosus. Archives of Dermatology, 91, 483–485.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fernandez-Herlihy, L. (1989). Drug-induced lupus may hold the key. Local Lupus, XVI, 10.Google Scholar
  32. Fock, K. M., Feng, P. H., & Tey, B. H. (1984). Autoimmune disease developing after augmentation mam moplasty: Report of three cases. Journal of Rheumatology, 11(1), 98–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Freeman, R. G., Knox, J. M., & Owen, D. W. (1969). Cutaneous lesions of lupus erythematosus induced by monochromatic light. Archives of Dermatology, 100, 677–682.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Friedberg, C. K., Gross, L., & Wallach, K. (1936). Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis associated with prolonged fever, arthritis, inflammation of serous membranes and widespread vascular lesions. Archives of Internal Medicine, 58, 662–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fukase, M. (Ed.). (1980). Systemic lupus erythematosus. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press.Google Scholar
  36. Ginzler, E., Diamond, H., Kaplan, D., Weiner, M., Schlesinger, M., & Seleznick, M. (1978). Computer analysis of factors influencing frequency of infection in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 21(1), 37–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gluck, O. (1990). Antimalarials and lupus. Facts about lupus, 14. Rockville, MD: Lupus Foundation of America, Inc.Google Scholar
  38. Graninger, W., Smolen, J. S., & Zielinski, C. C. (1987). Description of systemic lupus erythematosus: A historical perspective. In J. S. Smolen & C. C. Zielinski (Eds.), Systemic lupus erythematosus: Clinical and experimental aspects (pp. 2–5). Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gupta, S., & Talal, N. (1985). Immunology of rheumatic diseases. New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hall, R. C. W., Popkin, M. K., Stickney, S. K., & Gardner, E. R. (1979). Presentation of steroid psychoses. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 167(4), 229–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hargraves, M. M., Richmond, H., & Morton, R. (1948). Presentation of two bone marrow elements: The tart cell and LE cell. Proceedings of the Staff Meeting of the Mayo Clinic, 23, 25.Google Scholar
  42. Honer, W. G., & Prohovnik, I. (1989). Organic affective disorder and vascular dysregulation in systemic lupus erythematosus. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 34, 134–136.Google Scholar
  43. Hopkinson, N. (1991). Systemic lupus erythematosus: Epidemiological clues to aetiology. British Journal of Hospital Medicine, 45(5), 291–293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Hughes, G. R. V. (1980). Central nervous system lupus—diagnosis and treatment. The Journal of Rheumatology, 7(3), 405–411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Huston, D. P. (1987). Experimental therapy in systemic lupus erythematosus. In R. G. Lahita (Ed.), Systemic lupus erythematosus (pp. 947–972). New York: Churchill Livingstone.Google Scholar
  46. Ireys, H. T., & Burr, C. K. (1984). Apart and a part: Family issues for young adults with chronic illness and disability. In M. G. Eisenberg, L. C. Sutkin, & M. A. Jansen (Eds.), Chronic illness and disability through the life span: Effects on self and family (pp. 184–206). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  47. Jacobs, J. W., Bernhard, M. R., Delgado, A., & Strain, J. J. (1977). Screening for organic mental syndromes in the medically ill. Annals of Internal Medicine, 86, 40–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kaell, A. T., Shetty, M., Lee, B. C. P., & Lockshin, M. D. (1986). The diversity of neurologic events in systemic lupus erythematosus. Archives of Neurology, 43, 273–276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Keefe, F. J., Dunsmore, J., & Burnett, R. (1992). Behavioral and cognitive-behavioral approaches to chronic pain: Recent advances and future directions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60(4), 528–536.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kimmel, D. C. (1980). Adulthood and aging: An interdisciplinary, developmental view (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  51. Lippel, J. H. (1987). Immunosuppressive therapy. In R. G. Lahita (Ed.), Systemic lupus erythematosus (pp. 923–945). New York: Churchill Livingstone.Google Scholar
  52. Knippen, M. A. (1988). The relationship among selected variables associated with fatigue in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (Doctoral dissertation, The Catholic University of America). Dissertation Abstracts International, 50, 2338.Google Scholar
  53. Koffler, S. (1987). The role of neuropsychological testing in systemic lupus erythematosus. In R. G. Lahita (Ed.), Systemic lupus erythematosus (pp. 847–853). New York: Churchill Livingstone.Google Scholar
  54. Kumagai, Y., Shiokawa, Y., Medsger, T. A., Jr., & Rodnan, G. P. (1984). Clinical spectrum of connective tissue disease after cosmetic surgery. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 27(1), 1–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kutner, K. C., Busch, H. M., Mahmood, T., Racis, S. P., & Krey, P. R. (1988). Neuropsychological functioning in systemic lupus erythematosus. Neuropsychology, 2, 119–126.Google Scholar
  56. Labrie, V. Y. (1987). Lupus: Managing a complex chronic disability (Doctoral dissertation, University of California, San Francisco). Dissertation Abstracts International, 48(2), DA8708450.Google Scholar
  57. Lahita, R. G. (Ed.). (1987). Systemic lupus erythematosus. New York: Churchill Livingstone.Google Scholar
  58. Lee, T. H., Hoover, R. L., Williams, J. D., Sperling, R. J., Ravalese, J., III., Spur, B. W., Robinson, D. R., Corey, E. J., Lewis, R. A., & Austin, K. F. (1985). Effect of dietary enrichment with eicosapentanaenoic docosahexaenoic acids on in vitro neutrophil and monocyte leukotrine generation and neutrophil function. New England Journal of Medicine, 312(19), 1217–1224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Liang, M. H., Rogers, M., Larson, M., Eaton, H. M., Murawski, B. J., Taylor, J. E., Swafford, J., & Schur, P. H. (1984). The psychosocial impact of systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 27(1), 13–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Libmann, E., & Sacks, B. (1924). A hitherto undescribed form of valvular and mural endocarditis. Archives of Internal Medicine, 33, 701–737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lupus Foundation of America, Inc. (1990). Facts about lupus (A series of pamphlets available from 4 Research Place, Suite 180, Rockville, MD 20850-3226).Google Scholar
  62. Makarova, O. V. (1978). Effect of systemic lupus erythematosus antibodies against DNA on RNA synthesis. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 21(1), 45–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. McCarty, D. J. (1985). Arthritis and allied conditions: A textbook of rheumatology. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.Google Scholar
  64. Miescher, P. A., & Beris, P. (1984). Treatment of SLE. In P. H. Lambert, L Perrin, & S. Izui (Eds.), Recent advances in systemic lupus erythematosus (pp. 349–359). London: Academic Press (Harcourt Brace).Google Scholar
  65. Mineka, S., & Kelly, K. A. (1989). The relationship between anxiety, lack of control and loss of control. In A. Steptoe & A. Appels (Eds.), Stress, personal control, and health (pp. 163–191). Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  66. Mitchell, W. D., & Thompson, T. L. (1990). Psychiatric distress in systemic lupus erythematosus outpatients. Psychosomatics, 31(3), 293–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Moore, J. E., & Lutz, W. V. (1955). The natural history of systemic lupus erythematosus: An approach to its study through chronic biologic false positive reaction. Journal of Chronic Diseases, 1, 297–316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Moynihan, T. C. (1990). Lupus: Underwriting an enigma. Broker World, 10(2), 144–150.Google Scholar
  69. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (1986, December). Update: Lupus erythematosus research (DHHS No. NIH 87-460). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  70. O’Connor, J. F., & Musher, D. M. (1966). Central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus: A study of 150 cases. Archives of Neurology, 14, 157–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Perry, S. W. (1987). Psychiatric aspects of systemic lupus erythematosus. In R. G. Lahita (Ed.), Systemic lupus erythematosus (pp. 821–846). New York: Churchill Livingstone.Google Scholar
  72. Petri, M., Perez-Gutthann, S., Longenecker, J. C., & Hockberg, M. (1991). Morbidity of systemic lupus erythematosus: Role of race and socioeconomic status. American Journal of Medicine, 91, 345–353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Pitzelle, S. K. (1985). We are not alone: Learning to live with chronic illness. Minneapolis, MN: Thompson.Google Scholar
  74. Reeves, W. H., & Lahita, R. G. (1987). Clinical presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus in the adult. In R. G. Lahita (Ed.), Systemic lupus erythematosus (pp. 355–382). New York: Churchill Livingstone.Google Scholar
  75. Reidenberg, M. M., Durant, P. J., Harris, R. A., de Boccardo, G., Lahita, R., & Stenzel, K. H. (1983). Lupus erythematosus-like disease due to hydrazine. American Journal of Medicine, 75, 365–370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rider, M. S., & Kibler, V. E. (1990). Treating arthritis and lupus patients with music-mediated imagery and group psychotherapy. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 17, 29–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Roitt, I., Brostoff, D., & Male, D. (1989). Immunology (2nd ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.Google Scholar
  78. Ropes, M. W. (1976). Systemic lupus erythematosus. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  79. Rothfield, N. F. (1989). Systemic lupus erythematosus: Clinical aspects and treatment. In D. J. McCarty (Ed.), Arthritis and allied conditions—A textbook of rheumatology, 11th ed (pp. 1022–1048). Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.Google Scholar
  80. Rustad, L. C. (1984). Family adjustment to chronic illness and disability in midlife. In M. G. Eisenberg, L. C. Sutkin, & M. A. Jansen (Eds.), Chronic illness and disability through the life span: Effects on self and family (pp. 222–242). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  81. Sappington, J. T., & Fiorito, E. M. (1985). Thermal feedback in Raynaud’s phenomenon secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus: Long-term remission of target symptoms. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 10(4), 335–341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Schneebaum, A. B., Singleton, J. D., West, S. G., Blodgett, J. K., Allen, L. G., Cheronis, J. C., & Kotzin, B. L (1991). Association of psychiatrie manifestations with antibodies to ribosomal P Proteins in systemic lupus erythematosus. American Journal of Medicine, 90, 54–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Schur, P. H. (1985). Introduction: An overview of lupus. In H. Aladjem, (Ed.), Understanding lupus: What it is, how to treat it, how to cope with it (pp. XV–XXXI). New York: Scribner’s.Google Scholar
  84. Schwartz, R S. (1989). Fatigue and the vexed, tired lupus patient. Lupus News, 9(2), 1–2. Rockville, MD: Lupus Foundation of America, Inc.Google Scholar
  85. Seaman, W. P. (1990). The cellular requirements for immunity and autoimmunity. Lupus News, 10(1), 7–9.Google Scholar
  86. Siekert, R. G., & Clark, E. C. (1955). Neurologic signs and symptoms as early manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus. Neurology, 5, 84–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Stein, M., & Scheifler, S. J. (1985). Frontiers of stress research: Stress and immunity. In M. R. Zales (Ed.), Stress in health and disease (pp. 97–114). New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  88. Steptoe, A. (1989). The significance of personal control in health and disease. In A. Steptoe & A. Appels (Eds.), Stress, personal control, and health (pp. 309–318). Chichester, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
  89. Suratt, P. M., Winn, W. C., Brody, A. R., Bolton, W. K., & Giles, R. D. (1977). Acute silicosis in tombstone sandblasters. American Review of Respiratory Diseases, 115, 521–529.Google Scholar
  90. Swaak, A. J. G., Nossent, J. C., & Bronsveld, W. (1989). Systemic lupus erythematosus. I. Outcome and survival: Dutch experiences with 110 patients studied prospectively. Annals of Rheumatic Diseases, 48, 447–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Talal, N. (1983). A clinician and a scientist look at acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS). A validation of immunology’s theoretical foundation. Immunology Today, 4, 180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Tan, E. M., Cohen, A. S., Iries, J. F., Masi, A. T., McShane, D. J., Rothfield, N. F., Schaller, J. G., Talal, N., & Winchester, R. J. (1982). The 1982 revised criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 25(2), 1271–1277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Tuffanelli, D. L (1991). What is the magnitude of the problem of lupus erythematosus? Lupus News: The Official Newsletter of the Lupus Foundation of America, Inc., 11(2), 1–2.Google Scholar
  94. Tunks, E., & Bellissimo, A. (1991). Behavioral medicine: Concepts and procedures. New York: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  95. United States pharmacoj eia dispensing information: Drug information for the health care professional (13th ed.). (1993). Massachusetts: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  96. Urowitz, M. B., & Gladman, D. D. (1980). Late mortality in SLE—“The price we pay for? control.” Journal of Rheumatology, 7(3), 412–416.Google Scholar
  97. van Dam, A. P., Wekking, E. M., & Oomen, H. A. P. C. (1991). Psychiatric symptoms as features of systemic lupus erythematosus. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 55, 132–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Voss, E. W., Jr. (Ed.). (1988). Anti-DNA antibodies in SLE. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  99. Wallace, D. J. (1993). The clinical presentation of SLE. In D. J. Wallace & B. H. Hahn (Eds.), Dubois’lupus erythematosus, 4th ed (pp. 317–321). Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.Google Scholar
  100. Wallace, D. J. (1993). Steroid sparing drugs in lupus. Lupus News: The Official Newsletter of the Lupus Foundation of America, Inc., 9(2), 2.Google Scholar
  101. Wallace, D. J., Podell, T., Weiner, J., Klinenberg, J. R., Forouzesh, S., & Dubois, E. L. (1981). Systemic lupus erythematosus—survival patterns: Experience with 609 patients. Journal of the American Medical Association, 245(9), 934–938.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Wekking, E. M., Nossent, J. C., van Dam, A. P., & Swaak, A. J. J. G. (1991). Cognitive and emotional disturbances in systemic lupus erythematosus. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 55, 126–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Western Pennsylvania Chapter, Inc., Lupus Foundation of America, Inc. (1986). In-hospital lupus support group program manual. Pittsburgh, PA: Author.Google Scholar
  104. Willner, P. (1984). Cognitive functioning in depression: A review of theory and research. Psychological Medicine, 14, 807–823.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Witebsky, E., Rose, N. R., Terplan, K., Paine, J. R., & Egan, R. W. (1957). Chronic thyroiditis and autoimmunization. Journal of the American Medical Association, 164, 1439–1447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Yung, R. L., & Richardson, B. C. (1994). Drug-induced lupus. Rheumatic Disease Clinics of North America, 20(1), 61–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Ziskind, M., Jones, R. N., & Weill, H. (1976). Silicosis. American Review of Respiratory Diseases, 113, 643–665.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Linda R. Kostyak
    • 1
  1. 1.Western Psychiatric Institute and ClinicUniversity of Pittsburgh Medical CenterPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations