The Organization of Living Systems

  • John Mingers
Part of the Contemporary Systems Thinking book series (CST)


The fundamental question Maturana and Varela set out to answer is: what distinguishes entities or systems that we would call living from other systems, apparently equally complex, which we would not? How, for example, should a Martian distinguish between a horse and a car? This is an example that Monod (1974, p. 19) uses in addressing the similar but not identical question of distinguishing between natural and artificial systems.


Calcium Phosphate Living System Reverse Micelle Boundary Component Minimal Cell 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Mingers
    • 1
  1. 1.University of WarwickCoventryEngland, UK

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