Advertisement

Fatigue pp 471-480 | Cite as

Muscle Fatigue in Old Animals

Unique Aspects of Fatigue in Elderly Humans
  • J. A. Faulkner
  • S. V. Brooks
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 384)

Abstract

Muscle atrophy, weakness, injury, and fatigue are inevitable and immutable concomitants of old age. Atrophy results from a gradual process of fiber denervation with loss of some fibers and atrophy of others. Fast fibers show more denervation and atrophy than slow fibers. Some fast fibers are reinnervated by axonal sprouting from slow fibers resulting in remodeling of motor units. With aging, the decreases in strength and power are greater than expected from the loss in muscle mass. Contraction-induced injury is proposed as a mechanism of the fast fiber denervation. With atrophy and weakness, human beings show a dramatic decrease in endurance and increase in fatigability with aging, but strength and endurance training slows the process.

Keywords

Motor Unit Muscle Atrophy Muscle Fatigue Apply Physiology Optimal Velocity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barclay CJ, Constable JK & Gibbs CL (1993). Energetics of fast-and slow-twitch muscles of the mouse. Journal of Physiology (London) 472, 61–80.Google Scholar
  2. Brooks SV & Faulkner JA (1988). Contractile properties of skeletal muscles from young, adult, and aged mice. Journal of Physiology (London) 404, 71–82.Google Scholar
  3. Brooks SV & Faulkner JA (1990). Contraction-induced injury: recovery of skeletal muscles in young and old mice. American Journal of Physiology 258 (Cell Physiology 27), C436–C442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Brooks SV & Faulkner JA (1991). Maximum and sustained power of extensor digitorum longus muscles from young, adult and old mice. Journal of Gerontology: Biological Science 46, B28–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brooks SV & Faulkner JA (1994a). Skeletal muscle weakness in old age: underlying mechanisms. Medical Science and Sports Exercises 26, 432–439.Google Scholar
  6. Brooks SV & Faulkner JA (1994b). Isometric, shortening and lengthening contractions of muscle fiber segments from adult and old mice. American Journal of Physiology 267 (Cell Physiology 36), C507–C513.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Brown MC, Holland RL & Hopkins WG (1981). Motor nerve sprouting. Annual Reviews of Neuroscience 4, 17–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bruce SA, Newton D & Woledge RC (1989). Effect of age on voluntary force and cross-sectional area of human adductor pollicis muscle. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology 74, 359–362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Burke RE, Levine DN, Zajak FE, Tsairis P & Engel WK (1973). Physiological types and histochemical profiles in motor units of the cat gastrocnemius. Journal of Physiology (London) 234, 723–748.Google Scholar
  10. Carlson BM & Faulkner JA (1995). Skeletal muscle regeneration and aging: the influence of innervation. Journal of Gerontology In press.Google Scholar
  11. Desypris G & Parry DJ (1990). Relative efficacy of slow and fast-motoneurons to reinnervate mouse soleus muscle. American Journal of Physiology 258 (Cell Physiology 27), C62–C70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Edström L & Larsson L (1987). Effects of age on contractile and enzyme-histochemical properties of fast-and slow-twitch single motor units in the rat. Journal of Physiology (London) 392, 129–145.Google Scholar
  13. Enoka RM & Stuart DG (1992). Neurobiology of muscle fatigue. Journal of Applied Physiology 72, 1631–1648.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Faulkner JA & Brooks SV (1993). Fatigability of mouse muscles during constant length, shortening, and lengthening contractions: interactions between fiber types and duty cycles. In: Sargeant T, Kernell D (eds.) Neuromuscular Fatigue, pp 116-123. Amsterdam: Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences.Google Scholar
  15. Faulkner JA, Brooks SV & Opiteck JA (1993). Injury to skeletal muscle fibers during contractions: conditions of occurrence and prevention. In: Binder-Macleod SA (ed.), Physical Therapy, Special Edition, pp 911-921. Alexandria, VA: American Physical Therapy Association.Google Scholar
  16. Faulkner JA, Claflin DR & McCully KK (1986). Power output of fast and slow fibers from human skeletal muscles. In: Jones NL, McCartney N, McComas J, (eds.), Human Power Output, pp. 81–91. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers Inc.Google Scholar
  17. Faulkner JA, Green HJ & White TP (1994). Skeletal muscle responses to acute and adaptations to chronic physical activity. In: Bouchard C, Shephard RJ, Stephens T (eds.), Physical Activity, Fitness & Health, pp. 343–357. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc.Google Scholar
  18. Frontera WR, Meredith CN, O’Reilly KP, Knuttgen HG & Evans WJ (1988). Strength conditioning in older men: skeletal muscle hypertrophy and impaired function. Journal of Applied Physiology 64, 1038–1044.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Grimby G & Saltin B (1983). The aging muscle. Clinical Physiology 3, 209–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Johnson BD, Babcock MA, Suman OE & Dempsey JA (1993). Exercise-induced diaphragmatic fatigue in healthy humans. Journal of Physiology (London) 460, 385–405.Google Scholar
  21. Kadhiresan VA (1993). Functional Properties of Motor Units in Medial Gastrocnemius Muscles of Rats: Remodelling in Old Age. Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ. Microfilm Int.Cit. No. 9409723. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  22. Kanda K & Hashizume K (1989). Changes in properties of the medial gastrocnemius motor units in aging. Journal of Neurophysiology 61, 737–746.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Larsson L & Karlsson J (1978). Isometric and dynamic endurance as a function of age and skeletal muscle characteristics. Acta Physiologica Scandanavica 104, 129–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Larsson L & Salviati G (1989). Effects of age on calcium transport activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum in fast-and slow-twitch rat muscle fibres. Journal of Physiology (London) 419, 253–264.Google Scholar
  25. Lexell J, Taylor CC & Sjostrom M (1988). What is the cause of the ageing atrophy? Total number, size and proportion of different fiber types studied in whole astus lateralis muscle from 15-to 83-year-old men. Journal of Neurological Science 84, 275–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Makrides L, Heigenhauser GJ, McCartney N & Jones NL (1985). Maximal short term exercise capacity in healthy subjects aged 15–70 years. Clinical Science 69, 197–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. McCully KK, Fielding RA, Evans WJ, Leigh Jr, JS & Posner JD (1993). Relationships between in vivo and in vitro measurements of metabolism in young and old human calf muscles. Journal of Applied Physiology 75, 813–819.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Meredith CN, Frontera WR, Fisher EC, Hughes VA, Herland JC, Edwards J & Evans J (1989). Peripheral effects of endurance training in young and old subjects. Journal of Applied Physiology 66, 2844–2849.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Moore DH (1975). A study of age group track and field records to relate age and running speed. Nature 253, 264–265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Overend TJ, Cunningham DA, Paterson DH & Smith WD (1992). Physiological responses of young and elderly men to prolonged exercise at critical power. European Journal of Applied Physiology 64, 187–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pestronk A, Drachman DB & Griffin J (1980). Effects of aging on nerve sprouting and regeneration. Experimental Neurology 70, 64–82.Google Scholar
  32. Peter JB, Barnard RJ, Edgerton VR, Gillespie CA & Stemple KE (1972). Metabolic profiles of three fiber types of skeletal muscle in guinea pigs and rabbits. Biochemistry 14, 2627–2633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Phillips SK, Rook KM, Siddle NC & Woledge RC (1992). Muscle weakness in women occurs at an earlier age than in men, but strength is preserved by hormone replacement therapy. Clinical Science 84, 95–98.Google Scholar
  34. Rosenheimer JL (1990). Ultraterminal sprouting in innervated and partially denervated adult and aged rat muscle. Neuroscience 38, 763–770.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Schulz R & Curnow C (1988). Peak performance and age among superathletes: track and field, swimming, baseball, tennis, and golf. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences 43, P 113–120.Google Scholar
  36. Vandervoort AA, Hayes KC & Belanger AY (1986). Strength and endurance of skeletal muscle in the elderly. Physiotherapy Canada 38, 167–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zerba E, Komorowski TE & Faulkner J A (1990). Free radical injury to skeletal muscles of young, adult, and old mice. American Journal of Physiology 258 (Cell Physiology 27), C429–C435.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. A. Faulkner
    • 1
  • S. V. Brooks
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Gerontology and Bioengineering ProgramUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations